Constitution of Village Libre

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal and independent, that from that equal creation they derive rights inherent and inalienable, among which are the preservation of life, & liberty, & the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these ends, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government shall become destructive of these ends, it is the rights of the people to alter or to abolish it, & to institute new government laying it’s foundation on such principles and organizing it’s powers in such forms, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
-- The United States Declaration of Independence, adopted July 4, 1776.

Table of Contents

Preamble

The purpose of this Constitution is to try to spell out in layman's terms the conditions under which people can live and work together in freedom.  This Constitution is written differently than most constitutions by explaining the intent of each clause as well as the purpose of each rule.  Wherever possible, each rule is also justified so the casual reader may understand its importance.  Since this Constitution shall be the supreme law of the land, and the legitimacy of law is derived from its widespread acceptance, it is therefore rational to stress the importance of each constitutional rule to ensure harmony in the population.  As a result, this Constitution may appear a bit verbose, however it is much better to have each rule clearly explained, than having a constitution containing vague instructions to be interpreted and manipulated by those in power which always yields to constitutional tyranny.

Everyone carries a part of society on his shoulders; no one is relieved of his share of responsibility by others. And no one can find a safe way out for himself if society is sweeping toward destruction. Therefore, everyone, in his own interests, must thrust himself vigorously into the intellectual battle. None can stand aside with unconcern; the interest of everyone hangs on the result. Whether he chooses or not, every man is drawn into the great historical struggle, the decisive battle into which our epoch has plunged us.
-- Ludwig von Mises, Socialism, The Crisis of Civilization.

What is Village Libre?

Village Libre is a covenant of citizens for protecting life, liberty and property of each and every individual.  Therefore, to maximize individual liberty, this Constitution is written as framework to keep the Government of Village Libre small, by creating a panarchic confederation of voluntary associations named Civic Societies, and a polycentric legal system of Dispute Resolution Organizations.

Freedom of Speech Guaranteed

The right to free speech is a recognition that speech in itself if devoid of physical threats is not an initiation of force and does not warrant any retaliatory force. Many governments outlaw certain types of speech as being dangerous or inflammatory or against the will of the people, but this censorship is just an evasion of reality - hoping that if a problem is ignored it will go away. Freedom of speech is required for liberty because without the freedom of speech, you can not persuade others of what is right and what is wrong. Without the freedom to persuade others, only force can make people act in a particular way.  Freedom of speech is an important check on government because it allows transgressions to be identified and fixed rather than hidden and perpetuated.

Freedom of speech is guaranteed at Village Libre, and nobody may use the courts to legalize the use of physical force to silence others.  People are also free to express themselves, including publishing any information on their website without any risk of being jailed or killed.  Unfortunately, in most countries, people fear being sued if they expose something to the public.  When individuals may sue each other over speech, the result is a system protecting the Elite which has the money to hire attorneys to keep their victims silent.  Since going to court is ridiculously expensive, and the majority of courts are corrupt and biased towards those who can afford to purchase "more justice", the victim undergoes a high risk of being fined when sued by a wealthy and/or powerful person.  Everyone knows the outcome of refusing to pay a fine imposed by a court: the individual goes to jail, and if he resists incarceration, he will be killed by the police.  In other words, threating to sue is implicitly threatening the use of physical force.

Blackmail is the offer of trade. It is the offer to trade something, usually silence, for some other good, usually money. If the offer of the trade is accepted, the blackmailer then maintains his silence and the blackmailed pays the agreed-upon price.  When the blackmailer demands more than the secret is worth, his demand will not be met and blackmailer simply exercise his rights of free speech and publicize the secret.  Blackmail and the "threat" of blackmail serve as deterrents to murderers, thieves, swindlers, embezzlers, cheaters, and rapists.  The only "weapon" at the disposal of the blackmailer is the truth, and only the truth to back up his "threats".  Making blackmail illegal actually protects and encourages immoral behavior.  People wishing to outlaw blackmail are often people trying to avoid responsibilities, that is, the outcome of their very own actions.

When false libels are outlawed, the average person tends to believe that all derogatory reports spread about people are true, “otherwise they’d sue for libel.” This situation discriminates against the poor, since poorer people are less likely to file suits against libelers. Hence, the reputations of poorer or less wealthy persons are liable to suffer more now, when libel is outlawed, then they would if libel were legitimate.  Since everyone should know that false stories are legal at Village Libre, there will be far more skepticism on the part of the reading or listening public, who would insist on far more proof and believe fewer derogatory stories than they do now.

So what can be done in the case someone is proclaiming false information?  Please bear in mind there is no Ministry of Truth at Village Libre, and in most cases, what is true and false is just an opinion subject to disagreement.  An individual claiming being a victim of defamation is free to contact the Civic Society of the defamer / slanderer and prove the information is false.  Freedom of association means each Civic Society has total freedom to accept and reject members, using whatever procedure, including tossing a coin.  Since the reputation of each Civic Society rests on the reputation of its members, the Civic Society is likely to provide a hearing, and based on the evidence, will pressure the defamer to stop, and/or perhaps instruct the defamer to pay restitution to the victim if the defamation resulted in a clear damage towards the property of the victim.  If the defamer refuses to comply, the Civic Society may decide to expel him.  At Village Libre, citizenship is tied to a Civic Society; if no Civic Society wishes to accept an individual, that individual loses his citizenship, including his right to own land.  Ostracism is also a very powerful tool: people are free to refuse doing business with a defamer, and further, refuse doing business with an organization sponsoring a defamer.

Freedom of speech does not mean the right to threat using physical force.  For instance, making threats of beating an individual is not protected under freedom of speech.  Freedom of speech does not mean the right to invite others to join "your gang" to loot the minority after winning an election.  Inciting people to vote for a politician promising any kind of redistribution is considered an incitement to commit a crime.  Although people are free to express themselves at Village Libre, they are forbidden to persuade any Government Person to violate the Constitution.  For instance, declaring "the government should do x", as in "the government should provide free health care", may appear harmless, however the statement is soliciting violence by implying "the government should jail (or kill) dissents and/or people refusing to fund x".  People must understand all government actions are compulsory, and taxation is not voluntary.  People violating the Constitution shall receive a Treason Warning.

If something shall be done, then it should be done without the initiation of violence.  An individual "wishing the government to do x" shall contact his Civic Society and ask them to "do x".  Civic Societies are voluntary associations, and if an idea is good for society, it is likely one Civic Society will adopt the idea much quicker than any governmental bureaucracy.  If the idea produces positive results, then other Civic Societies will follow the lead.  Again, there is no need to initiate violence towards individuals for adopting a good idea.

Open Letters

To foster freedom of speech and/or to rectify any injustice, the Government of Village Libre has the duty to publish on its website any open letter written in professional manner.  This way, if a policy or treaty is violating the property of others, then a civilized discussion may take place where both parties can express their opinions while giving an opportunity for the rest of the world to read and learn about the topic.  At Village Libre, we do not consent to bullying or mafia-style ultimatums such as "Obey or Die".  If a group of people believe an individual at Village Libre has violated their property, and unable to get restitution via our polycentric legal system, then the group has the responsibility to write an open letter which will be published on the Government Website.  The plaintiffs must be in good faith and willing to have a recorded debate with anyone willing to challenge them.  All video(s) of the debate(s) must be freely available to download on the Internet.  When there are no new arguments to the discussion, a Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars will provide a written essay justifying their decision.  The Jury's decision may require the individual to pay restitution for violating the property of others, otherwise the faulty individual will be expelled from Village Libre.

Bill of Norms

The Bill of Norms is similar as a Bill of Rights, however different in two ways:  First, rights are inalienable; they do not come from a document such as a Constitution, nor from any group of people, including a government or a state.  Consequently, having a Bill of Rights in a constitution is implicitly stipulating that people have rights because the Constitution authorizes the government to grant those rights to the people, or put differently, that without a Bill of Rights, people would not have those rights.  Second, we want to define the social norms which are the explicit and implicit rules specifying what behaviors are acceptable at Village Libre.  People joining our community must agree to respect our values and beliefs, including our effort to develop and maintain a culture of individual liberty.

This Bill of Norms is written in the first person to inspire people to make a personal commitment towards a moral code:

Bill of Norms

  1. I own my body and consequently nobody has any authority to use force to act against my wishes.  Thus, I engage myself to never coerce others, and never threaten to initiate force to coerce others.
  2. I own my thoughts and I have the right to think whatever I want.  My beliefs are my property, as they do not belong to anyone else.  What I think of others is private to me.  Likewise, others are free to think of me according to their values.  My "reputation" is the subjective feelings and attitudes held by other people towards me.  Since no one can ever truly own the mind and attitude of another, this means that no one can literally have a property right in his "reputation."
  3. Since I own my body, I am free to use my body to express myself verbally, by gestures, and also by writing my opinions.  The corollary also means I have the right to remain silent, including the right to refuse writing anything, such as signing a contract.  I engage myself to respect the rights of others to express their opinions even in the case I disagree or dislike them.  I also engage myself to never use coercion, including intimidation of threat of force to silence others.
  4. I have the right to acquire and exchange property with other individuals willing to trade with me.  Consequently I engage myself to respect the property of others and their right to acquire and exchange their property.  Property means the exclusive ownership of a scarce resource.
  5. I have the right to refuse contracting with anyone without justifying myself.  My right includes refusing any kind of money, including Bitcoins, gold and silver.  To respect the right of others to freely contract, I will never promote any Central Bank, nor any national currency, nor any legal tender law.
  6. I will pay my fair share of society, which means, I will pay for my own expenses. My freedom creates no obligations towards others.  I am free to marry and have children, however I will never attempt to coerce others to pay for my family expenses, such as food, education, medical services and retirement.  If I cannot afford some expenses, I will seek the generosity of others to help me.
  7. I will not envy others.  On the free market, everyone earns according to his productive value in satisfying consumer desires.  I recognize being a successful entrepreneur at Village Libre is actually a blessing to society.  Being successful and accumulating wealth from voluntary exchanges is not a crime.
  8. I understand doing nothing is not a crime, and I will never accuse or convict anyone of a crime for simply doing nothing.
  9. I am free to act according to my beliefs and values.  Consequently, I am fully responsible of my actions.  Others are also responsible of their actions.  I will do my best seeking justice by protecting the innocent from being punished for the actions or crimes of someone else.
  10. I have the right to defend myself and my justly acquired property, using whatever tools necessary.  I also have the right to seek help assisting me defending my property.  I will not take the property of others without their consent, nor will attempt to ask someone to steal on my behalf, nor will I partake in theft.
  11. I will seek peace with neighbor nations and will not foster illegal activities.  If a product is illegal outside Village Libre, I will not attempt to use Village Libre to produce such product and export/sell it where it is illegal.
  12. I have the freedom to choose my profession.  Consequently, I will respect the rights of other to choose their profession and I will never use any form of coercion, including licensing, to suppress others from exercing a profession similar to mine.

General Constitutional Objectives

A Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people, it is an instrument for the people to restrain the government.
-- Patrick Henry.

The purpose of the Government of Village Libre is the following:

  1. Provide Government Documents such as passports, citizen cards, resident cards, visitor cards, drivers licenses, vehicle title certificates, land title certificates, birth certificates, marriage certificates, and diplomas upon request by Accredited Organizations and Civic Societies.
  2. Provide Border Protection services to ensure only authorized people are allowed within Village Libre.
  3. Provide a facility for Militia Training and Gun Safety Certification.
  4. Provide a mechanism for the election of Government Officers.
  5. Provide a mechanism for Citizens to approve every Treaty.
  6. Provide a mechanism for Citizens to vote directly on the budget allowed for the Village Council.
  7. Develop and maintain the Government Website to communicate effectively with the population.

This is a partial list of activities forbidden to the Government of Village Libre.  In other words, it is an act of treason for the Mayor or any Government Person to impose and/or fund any of the following activity:

  1. immigration, security, protection, police, defense, military actions, war.
  2. health care, regulations of any kind, safety standards, environment, pollution, climate, energy.
  3. schooling, education, research, science, culture, religion, arts, sports, entertainment, news / propaganda.
  4. welfare, unemployment compensation, protect jobs, labor unions, wages, work conditions, worker benefits, retirement.
  5. provide guaranteed loans, bailouts, grant limited liability, grant a charter, grant corporate personhood, grant any kind of monopoly.
  6. natural resources, zoning, housing, infrastructures, roads, transportation, postal service, mail, telecommunications.
  7. legislation, legal immunity, law, morality, abortion, justice and enforcement of contracts.
  8. economic growth, economic regulation, banking regulation, financial regulation, insurance, consumer protection, commerce, gaming, lottery.
  9. coin or print any money, regulate the value of money, control the money supply, have a central bank, manipulate interest rates, prohibit "usury", endorse any legal tender, create a national currency.
  10. collect or receive proceeds of income tax, sales tax, property tax, capital gain tax, inheritance tax, excise tax, land tax, land lease, tariff, import or export quotas, seigniorage, license fees, permits, social security, mandatory insurance.
  11. The Government cannot invest, give, borrow or lend any kind of money, including, but not limited to, Bitcoins, gold and silver.
  12. The Government is forbidden to spy, eavesdrop/wiretap, contact, spam, harass, jail, torture or kill any person (individual or business). Only a Government Officer, such as the Mayor or Webmaster, may himself initiate a contact with a Citizen strictly for purchasing goods and services related to the printing of Government Documents, maintenance of the Government Website, or the election of Government Officers, as authorized in this Constitution.

The Government cannot force any individual to pay, or command him to do anything against his wish. Likewise the Government has no right to force any kind of servitude such as "military conscription", "jury duty" or "forced to testify in court".  At anytime, the individual is free to refuse paying anything the Government and/or disobeying the Government without any risk of being incarcerated.

Government Structure

There are three Branches of Government at Village Libre: the Executive Branch, the Oversight Branch and the Judicial Branch.  The Executive Branch is composed of five (5) independent Government Officers paid from Fees for providing services and Government Documents such as a driver license and the registration of a land title.  The Oversight Branch is directed by the Village Council having the duty to supervise the seven (7) Government Officers paid by Taxes.  The Judicial Branch is provides a framework for resolving disputes between individuals and/or businesses, as well as resolving Constitutional Disputes.  Notice there is no Legislative Branch, as the rulemaking is the responsibility of Civic Societies, Accredited Organizations and Dispute Resolution Organizations (DROs) for creating a network of voluntary contracts.

Finally, there are six (6) Quasi-Government Organizations: Civic Societies, Accredited Organizations, Dispute Resolution Organizations, Prison Operators, Land Registrars and Work-for-Food Coordinators.  Those organizations are closely affiliated with the Government and must follow specific rules, however those organizations are privately owned, autonomous in their management, subject to competition of the market, and receive their funding solely from customers willing to purchase their services.

Three Branches of Government

Legend

Although this Government Structure may appear complex, it is rather simple considering the level of details in the chart above.  The red line means all Government Transactions are audited and must be encrypted using a randomly selected Public Key from a Civic Society, and the encrypted data sent to the Bookkeepers which are responsible of safekeeping those encrypted records until ordered by a Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars or the Village Council.  The dotted blue line means the Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars or the Village Council has the authority to grant an audit by ordering the Bookkeepers to release the relevant encrypted records to the Civic Societies so they may use their Private Keys to decrypt the records and send them to the Audit Committee.

Here is a written summary of the government and social structure of Village Libre:

Executive Branch

The Mayor, having a similar role as a President, may be considered the representative of Village Libre (under carefully guarded conditions) in relation with other nations.  The Mayor has the authority to meet with other head of state and/or negotiate Treaties with other nations.  The Mayor is an entrepreneur earning his income by selling Government Documents to Accredited Organizations and Civic Societies.  To prevent corruption or collusion, all Print Jobs from the Print Office and Passport Office are audited.  The Mayor is elected from a general election of the Citizen of Village Libre.

The Chief Land Registrar is an independent executive officer responsible of maintaining the Land Registry database.  His duties is maintaining the integrity of the database and providing APIs and Webservices to Land Registrars to conduct transfers of land ownership.  The Chief Land Registrar is elected by the Land Registrars.

The Vehicle Registrar is an independent executive officer responsible of maintaining a database of vehicle ownership.  The purpose of this database is to ensure vehicle meet pollution tests and the owner of the vehicle respects driving safety code.  As a rule of thumb, if a vehicle is doing speeding, then the owner of the car will be fined.  The Vehicle Registrar is elected by vehicle owners.

The Gun Registrar is an independent executive officer responsible of maintaining a database of individuals allowed to purchase weapons, and to register all guns and amunitions owned by the Militia Academy.  The Gun Registrar does not decide who is allowed to purchase weapons and does not keep track of weapons purchased by indivdiuals; it only facilitates communications between sellers of weapons and Civic Societies authorizing Citizens the purchase of weapons.  For details, please read Gun Registry.

The Treasurer is an independent executive officer responsible of collecting all Taxes and Fees, and paying each and every Government Officers  The purpose of the Treasurer is to ensure all Government Officers are paid weekly as well as providing Financial Transparency and a reliable mechanism for auditing all Government Transactions.  The Treasurer is elected by other Government Officers who are responsible of paying him.

Oversight Branch

The Village Council is responsible of electing and overseeing all Government Officers paid with Taxes, such as, the Webmaster, Privacy Guard, Vote Keeper, Director of Elections, Internal Bookkeeper, External Bookkeeper and the Chief Border Security.  The Village Council is composed of the Presidents of each Civic Society acting as of Councilors on behalf of their members.  Each Civic Society in good standing has a number of electoral seat calculated from the square root of its number of Citizens.

 the maintenance of the Government Website, provide Border Security, supervise the Elections of Government Officers and conduct auditing of every Government Officers. 

The Village Council is funded mostly from taxes levied on Civic Societies, and sometimes from fees paid by Accredited Organizations when issuing a Visitor Visa.  To prevent the Village Council to abuse its taxing power, the tax amount is determined by the Citizens, each having a direct vote on the tax amount.  Each Citizen may login to the Government Website and enter the tax amount (between 0 and 5 Man-Hours per year) he wishes to fund the Village Council.  If a Citizen abstains from voting, then the President of his Civic Society may vote on his behalf.  The Vote Keeper maintains a database recording each vote and the average value represents the annual taxes to be paid by each Taxpayer.  To remain in good standing, each Civic Society must pay this tax to the Village Council according to its number of Taxpayers.  This way, the total tax collected for the Village Council cannot exceed 5 Man-Hours per Taxpayer per year.

Each Civic Society has the responsibility to compensate its President for any time or expense related to the administration of the Village Council.  Also, each President has the duty to participate as a member of the Audit Committee to audit the transactions of all Government Officers and the three Government Institutions: Militia Academy, Minutemen Order and Faculty of Liberty Scholars.

The Village Council has the authority to supervise the Militia Academy award titles and diplomas to individuals who qualify as a Militia Instructor, Militia Volunteer, and Border Agent.  The funding of the Militia Academy and its Militia Instructors may come from fees, or from the Village Council and individuals and organizations making donations and/or sponsoring events.  This way the Militia Academy is guaranteed a minimum funding from the Village Council, however subject to the good graces of the public.  If people are not willing to sponsor the Militia Academy because of poor performance, corruption, or lack of transparence, then the Militia Academy will have to live with a very lean budget.

The Minutemen Order is another official Government Institution, indirectly under the supervision of the Village Council.  To qualify as a Minuteman, one must qualify as a Militia Volunteer.  The Militia Academy which is under the supervision of the Village Council has the authority to grant and revoke the title of Militia Volunteer, therefore having a veto right on the title of Minuteman.  The Minuteman Order has the freedom to organize itself, appoint its directors and officers, and select among the Militia Volunteers any outstanding individual qualifying as a Minuteman.  Like all Government Institutions, all transactions, which includes donations of any kind, to the Minutemen Order are audited to prevent a group of individuals to fund, or influence our militia for improper purpose.

The Village Council is also responsible of allocating a budget and determining the schedule of Border Agents necessary for the protection of entry and exit points of Village Libre.  Each Civic Society has the duty to provide a Border Agent in proportion of its number of Taxpayers.  The compensation of the Border Agent is any mutual agreement between an individual having the title of Border Agent and a Civic Society willing to hire him.  The Militia Academy provides training and certification to Border Agents, including awarding them a certificate or diploma.

Judicial Branch

The Faculty of Liberty Scholars is a Government Institution somewhat like a Supreme Court, however dealing only with Constitutional Disputes.  The Faculty has the authority to award the title of Liberty Scholar to distinguished individuals who are considered scholars of liberty.  Citizens having the title of Liberty Scholar may volunteer to become a member of a Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars, should a Constitutional Dispute arise.  The Faculty is funded through charity only (no taxes), so the people have the power to vote with their wallets if dissatisfied with the integrity of the Faculty of Liberty Scholars.

The Jury is an independent institution composed of Jury Volunteers.  The Faculty of Liberty Scholars has the authority to establish the guidelines and requirements to qualify as a Jury Volunteer.  The Village Council and/or the Faculty of Liberty Scholars have authority to award the title of Jury Volunteer, provided the individual passed the written exam to qualify. All Juries are paid by the parties in dispute (pay-per-use).  Jury Volunteers are randomly selected from the Jury Pool and compensated according to the median salary of Jury Volunteers.

Private disputes between individuals and/or businesses are resolved by independents Dispute Resolution Organizations (DROs).  To remain in good standing, a DRO must have written contracts with three (3) Civic Societies

The Market

A Civic Society is an independent organization funded by its members, such as Citizens, Residents and Visitors.  It is up to each Civic Society to determine its rules and fees, and what services to offer to its members.  Civic Societies are local governments responsible of education, health care, welfare and protection of their members.  To remain in good standing, a Civic Society must have written contracts with three (3) Dispute Resolution Organizations (DROs) willing to arbitrate their disputes.  Willing Civic Societies may participate in the auditing of Government Transactions by providing a key to encrypt and decrypt Government Transactions.

An Accredited Organization is a group of Citizens having the authority to certify individuals, and/or order Government Documents, such as Diplomas, Certificates, Driver Licenses, Visitor Cards.  Accredited Organizations have the authority to sponsor Visitors (tourists) and sponsor individuals as Certified Professionals.   Similar as a Civic Society, an Accredited Organization must have written contracts with three (3) Dispute Resolution Organizations (DROs) to remain in good standing.

A Dispute Resolution Organization (DRO) is an Accredited Organization specialized in resolving disputes between individuals and/or businesses. At Village Libre, justice is served by a market of competing organizations rather than being imposed by an ineptocracy of politicians and bureaucrats.

A Land Registrar is an Accredited Organization having special access to update the Land Registry to transfer the ownership of land.

A Prison Operator is an Accredited Organization specializing in keeping criminals physically confined for the purpose of preventing them from committing more crimes, or as a punishment for committing crimes.

A Work-for-Food Coordinator is an Accredited Organization having the authority to grant Work-for-Food Visas to help poor individuals finding work in exchange for food.  The second purpose of the Work-for-Food Coordinator is helping those individuals finding permanent employment.

Government Income

A wise and frugal government, which shall leave men free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned.
-- Thomas Jefferson

Taxes

To ensure Taxes and Fees remains low at Village Libre, each Government Officer has a ceiling on how much taxes he may collect from Civic Societies and Accredited Organizations.  All taxes are expressed Man-Hours, however paid weekly in Bitcoin to the Treasurer having responsibility to pay each and every Government Officer.

Government Officer Maximum Tax Allowed in Man-Hours
Webmaster 4 Man-Hours per year per Taxpayer
Privacy Guard 4 Man-Hours per year per Taxpayer
Vote Keeper 2 Man-Hours per Citizen per year + 1 minute per casted vote online (for an Election, a Treaty or Surcharge)
Director of Election 1 Man-Hour per Eligible Voter for each election or referendum (note: some Citizens may not be eligible to vote)
Internal Bookkeeper 2 Man-Hours per year per Taxpayer
External Bookkeeper 2 Man-Hours per year per Taxpayer
Chief Border Security 6 Man-Hours per year per Taxpayer
Village Council 5 Man-Hours per year per Taxpayer

Assuming each Government Officer is elected despite promising the maximum allowed tax rate, the total taxes per year would represent 4 + 4 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 6 + 5 = 25 Man-Hours.  In such a worse-case scenario, the typical worker will have to contribute 25 hours of his work per year to pay his share of taxes.  Once every 6 years, there is an election for the Mayor, which adds a tax of one hour, meaning an amortized average of 10 minutes of extra work per year.  Assuming everyone earns the median income, and a typical week includes 30 hours of work, and people take 3 months (13 weeks) of vacation pear year, then the maximum size of the Government would be about 2% of the GDP.  Since people under 25 and over 65 are exempt from taxes, the actual taxes as a percent of GDP is much lower.  If Taxpayers work more than 30 hours per week, or take less than 3 months of vacation per year, or earn more than the median salary (which is almost always the case), then the maximum size of the Government will be a much smaller percentage of GDP.

Please bear in mind that Government Officers are elected with a binding contract regarding how much to tax.  Citizens are free to vote for a candidate promising low taxes.  All taxes are paid by Civic Societies according to their number of Taxpayers.

While Village Council is not a Government Officer, it receives income from taxes to pay for its expenditures such as maintenance of offices, utility, office equipment and computers necessary for the Audit Committee, the supervision of the Militia Academy.  Civic Societies have the duty to compensate their Presidents whose duties is participating as Councellors for the Village Council.

Are "Taxes" defined in this Constitution really taxes?  According to some scholars, they are not taxes because one is not obliged to pay them, or forced to join a Civic Society.  For instance, an individual born in Village Libre may live his entire life without contracting with any Civic Society, and consequently would pay zero taxes.  On the other hand, for practical purpose, the enjoyment of life is severely restricted to any individual not joining a Civic Society.  Such individual will not able to sponsor Visitors, unable to receive a Government Document such as a diploma from an Accredited Organization, or a Drivers License, Passport, Birth Certificate, and so on.  As a result, we call them Taxes because they are somewhat mandatory.   Besides, everyone knows what a tax is and it makes life simpler to call them taxes than creating a new name describing the action of taking money from the population to pay for governmental expenditures.

Taxpayer

A Taxpayer is an individual whose Civic Society pays Taxes on his behalf.  Although individuals do not pay taxes directly to the Government, their Civic Society must pay them on their behalf.  Failure to pay the Taxes will result in the Civic Society (and all its members) to lose its status of good standing.

Any individual residing more than 6 month in Village Libre automatically becomes a taxpayer.  Therefore, when a Civic Society or an Accredited Organization is sponsoring a Visitor, the sponsor implicitly agrees to pay Taxes if the Visitor stays more than 6 months.  Once a Visitor is a taxpayer, he may apply to become a Resident, and one year later, may apply to become a Citizen.

To help students and retired people, anyone younger than 25 or older than 65 is exempted from paying taxes.  For instance, a Civic Society of seniors would pay zero taxes for all its Residents and Citizens are over 65.

Likewise, people with disabilities are exempted from paying taxes.  To qualify as a disabled individual, one must get three (3) signatures: one from an officer of his Civic Society, one from an officer of another Civic Society, and one signature from an officer of a Dispute Resolution Organization (all in good standing) asserting the individual has a disability.  Any disabled individual must have his name, picture and description of the disability displayed on the Government Website.  This way, if an individual is cheating, everyone will know.  There is nothing shameful having a disability, however it is immoral to pretend being disabled to avoid paying taxes.  People with physical disabilities are anyone blind, deaf, mute, non-functional or missing hand, unable to walk without crutches or similar device, or unable to obtain a Driver License due a medical condition (poor sight, epilepsy).  Mentally disabled individuals must have a guardian (tutor) and cannot cross the border without him.  Mentally disabled individuals are not allowed to become Citizens, cannot sponsor (invite) Visitors, cannot have a Driver License, nor can receive a diploma or a certificate.  This way, if someone wants to avoid taxes by playing the game he is mentally disabled, so be it, however his life will be quite boring.  An individual who qualifies as a disabled individual may nevertheless choose to be a taxpayer for not having his name and picture displayed on the Government Website.

Citizens exempt from taxes may only vote the Mayor, and cannot vote to elect other Government Officers, nor vote for a Treaty or a Surcharge.  An individual younger than 25 or older than 65 may choose to become a taxpayer if interested in politics, or wishing to contribute to fund the Government.  For instance, in order to receive a ballot to vote, one must have been a Citizen-Residing-Taxpayer for more than one year, and to qualify as a runner for office as a Government Officer, one must have been a Citizen-Residing-Taxpayer for more than 6 years.

Any voluntary taxpayer may add the title "Voluntary Taxpayer" to his ID card.

Citizen-Residing-Taxpayer

A Citizen-Residing-Taxpayer is an individual who is a Citizen residing in Village Libre and also a Taxpayer.  As a rule of thumb, only Citizen-Residing-Taxpayers are allowed to vote.  This rule is important to prevent individuals not living at Village Libre to control those living within the Village.  Allowing non-residing-citizens to vote is likely to result in the election of the cheapest Webmaster, Privacy Guard, and voting down any improvement in border security, or any Treaty on pollution.  Likewise, people not paying taxes are not allowed to decide how the tax money should be spent.

Surcharge

A Surcharge is another tax to fund a specific project such as building a fence around Village Libre or constructing the Militia Academy. This Constitution authorizes the Village Council to solicit bids from entrepreneurs and publish them on the Government Website.  Citizens may vote which bid(s) they approve, including an option to oppose funding a specific project.  The bid receiving the highest Net Votes (approvals) is the winner, provided it has the Absolute Net Majority of approvals.  Civic Societies have the obligation to transfer the gold according to their number of Taxpayers to the entrepreneur winning the bid.  To prevent an abusive surcharge, a Civic Society having more than 50% of its Citizens opposing it must pay per Taxpayer according to the percentage of Citizens approving the project.  This way, if every Citizen from a Civic Society oppose funding a project, then no member of this Civic Society will have to fund this project.

The concept of a surcharge is an effective mechanism to fund cultural events.  For instance, the Village Council wishes to organize an event for Christmas however all the tax money has already been allocated (spent).  The Village Council may publish on the Government Website different bids consulting how much the Citizens wish to fund for the event.  Although Residents do not directly vote, they have the freedom to join a Civic Society of like minded.  For instance, all atheists may form a Civic Society, and if all of them oppose the funding of a Christmas event, then their Civic Society will pay nothing at all.

The Vote Keeper is responsible of recording each vote and display for each bid, the Net Votes of each Civic Society.

Fees

Fees are paid by Accredited Organizations to be listed on the Government Website.  Despite those fees being voluntary, there is still a maximum fee authorized in this Constitution to prevent the Webmaster to abuse his temporary monopoly on prices.

The Webmaster may collect a maximum one (1) hour of the Median Hourly Wage per member of each Accredited Organization.  For instance, if an Accredited Organization has 26 members and the Median Hourly Wage is 0.1 gram of gold, then the Webmaster may collect a maximum of 2.6 grams of gold during the year.  Since the fees are paid on a weekly basis, the Accredited Organization will have to pay the Webmaster 0.5 gram each week.  Of course, the weekly amount may vary.  If the Accredited Organization has double its membership by the end of the year, it may have to double its weekly payment.

The Webmaster is elected on a contractual basis.  During election times, the individuals wishing to be elected as Webmaster must submit their fees.  A webmaster may promise a flat fee per Accredited Organization, while another webmaster may propose a small annual fee with a fee according to the number of members.  The webmaster may also collect extra fees for disk storage or bandwidth if justified, however cannot collect more than twice the cost of it.  For instance, an Accredited Organization may wish to store videos on the Government Website.  If the cost of disk storage and bandwidth is sufficient to be justified, the Webmaster may collect extra.  If the Webmaster wishes collect such extra fees, those fees must apply for each Accredited Organization.  A Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars has the authority to rule if there is a dispute regarding those fees.

Treasurer

The Treasurer is a Government Officer responsible of collecting all income of the Government from Civic Societies and Accredited Organizations, and pay each and every Government Officer on a weekly basis.

If a Civic Society does not pay its tax, then the Treasurer has the duty to remove the status of "Good Standing" from the Civic Society until the tax is paid in full.  Also, the Treasurer has the duty to withhold 25% of income from every Government Officer as a Loyalty Bonus, and withhold the appropriate percentage for the Performance Bonus.

Loyalty Bonus

The purpose of the Loyalty Bonus is giving an incentive to Government Officers to obey the Constitution.  This bonus is accumulated in a special trust account for as long as the individual is working for the Government, and paid only at the moment of his retirement from service.  No bonus shall be given to any impeached Government Officer for violating the Constitution.

Each Government Officer ending his contract without impeachment is entitled to a bonus corresponding to 25% of what he received during his term of service.  Consequently, 25% of the income for each Government Officer must be set aside in a special account in Cold Storage.  When a Candidate wishes to be elected as a Government Officer, he must write on his contract the required budget he would like to receive to perform his duties as a Government Officer.  The contract must include the total cost which includes the Loyalty Bonus and Performance Bonus to be paid by by Taxes and/or Fees.  This contract is made public on the Government Website so Citizens may read it and decide on which Candidate to elect (Civic Societies have Seats to elect Government Officers, and Citizens have the option to cast votes directly on the Seats allocated to their Civic Society).  Each Civic Society has the duty to pay its taxes in proportion of its Taxpayers.  Consequently, each week, 25% of all taxes and fees must be set aside into a trust for the Loyalty Bonus of each Government Officer

Performance Bonus

The purpose of a Performance Bonus is giving an incentive to Government Officers to abide to their contract.  This way, incompetence and/or broken promises will cost the Government Officer a percentage of his income.  The Performance Bonus corresponds to 10% of the income of the Government Officer, however some positions where the privacy and data security is very important, the Perfomance Bonus may be as high as 50%.  For instance, the Performance Bonus of the Webmaster is 10%.  If there is a data breach of the Government Website, then the Webmaster loses his 10%.  The Webmaster is entitled his Loyalty Bonus (unless he commited an act of treason), however will lose his Performance Bonus for incompetence.  In the case of incompetence, the Performance Bonus is to the General Fund.

The performance bonus varies according to the responsibility of the Government Officer.  For instance, if the names the Webmaster has a 10% Performance Bonus.  If by accident the Webmaster leaks the emails, or names or pictures of Citizens, then he will loose his Performance Bonus.  If such an accident happen, the Privacy Guard may also loose his Performance Bonus Government Website leaks

Government Officer Performance Bonus Example of a reason to lose the Performance Bonus
Director of Elections 50% Any kind of "irregularity" in the election process.
Vote Keeper 50% Disclosing of voting.
Treasurer 50% Missing funds or unaccounted funds, leaked transactions.
Privacy Guard 25% Data breach such as names and pictures leaking out.
Chief Border Security 25% Data breach disclosing Border Activity.
Gun Registrar 25% Data breach regarding who is in the database.
Others 10% Not fulfilling their duties according to the Constitution.

Bonus Payout

The Loyalty Bonus and Performance Bonus are withheld in Cold Storage for as long as the Government Officer is in office, including being re-elected. The longer someone is in power, the greater risk of corruption.  Therefore, the greater the bonus, the bigger the incentive to obey the Constitution.

When the Government Officer retires from service, the other Government Officers unlock the Bitcoins from Cold Storage and transfer them to the Treasurer having the duty to disburse the bonuses on 50 weekly payments of equal amount. The purpose of disbursing the bonuses over 50 weeks is giving an incentive for the Government Officer to obey the Constitution until its last day, and hopefully nothing Unconstitutional is discovered when a new Government Officer takes office.  If a Government Person is impeached, then the amount of the bonus is transferred to the General Fund

Bonus Trickle Down

A Government Officer may decide to apply the same policies to his employees and contractors.  To some extent, a Government Officer is the head of his "department" and has the discretion to hire anyone he wishes to assist him to perform his duties.  It is up to the Government Officer and his helpers to establish the rules on to share the Loyalty Bonus and Performance Bonus, however if an employee and contractors misbehave, it is the Government Officer who will first lose his bonus.

Profits of Government Officers

Government Officers are elected as entrepreneurs, keeping the profits of their department.  Each Government Officer has a binding contract for his budget, rewarded by profits and subject to personal bankruptcy if running a deficit.

Bankruptcy of Government Officers

A Government Officer may go bankrupt if his expenses are higher than what he earns from Taxes and Fees.  If a Government Officer promised to perform his duties for a specific amount of Man-Hours, then he is not allowed to receive any increase during his term.

A replacement Government Officer will be

 

resignate at anytime.

General Fund

The term General Fund is the name given to a special account to keep gold that does not belong to anyone.  For instance, if the Mayor is impeached, then he cannot receive his bonus.  This begs the question: who is entitled to receive that money?  Giving the bonus to the next Mayor is not fair and may even create an incentive for Mayoral Candidates to impeach the current Mayor just to receive his bonus.  In a related case, the General Fund may also receive gold from a Juror who declined for 3 consecutives times the request to be present on a Jury, yet wants to remain on the Jury Pool.  To show good faith, the Juror must contribute one hour of the Jury Wage to the General Fund which will reset the counter to zero.  At Village Libre, the Jurors are paid, however they also have the responsibility to make themselves available when their names are selected as a member of a Jury.  By having a fee to the Jurors who are unavailable, the Jury Pool is likely to contain a list of reliable individuals and available as Jurors for a Trial by Jury.

The gold from General Fund could be given to charity, however the question remains: which charity organization?  The fairest solution is distributing the gold to the entire population, however this is not a trivial solution because transaction cost would be high.  Besides, some individuals pay no taxes, so it make no sense to return their share of money they have not paid.  As a result, the gold from the General Fund is held for a minimum of 90 days after the last dispute has been resolved (in case a new dispute arise) and then transferred to the Village Council.  The Village Council is represented by the presidents of each Civic Society, so to some extent, the Village Council represents the population.  It is likely the Village Council will find no difficulty spending any money coming from the General Fund.

 

Collection of Taxes and Fees

The Treasurer may receive Bitcoins only from Civic Societies and Accredited Organizations.  The purpose of this restriction multifold:

  1. Limit the income of the Government, and consequently to limit its size.
  2. Prevent any direct taxation where the individual (or business) has to send money to the Government.
  3. Protect the financial privacy of individuals.  Any form of tax, such as Property Tax, Income Tax or Sales Tax, requires the individual (or business) to disclose private financial details, such as assets, income and expenses.
  4. Protect the personal privacy of individuals.  Since the Government cannot receive any money directly from individuals, the Government has no business knowing the address where people live.
  5. Prevent the Government to sell any service, such as Social Security, to buy votes from a group of individuals.  Selling governmental services is a big threat to individual freedom: in the beginning the service is subsidized by the taxpayers, so people are voluntary purchasing it because they receive more from the service than they pay for it.  Later, the "service" becomes mandatory forcing everyone to send money to the Government.
  6. Provide Government transparency.  Restricting the Government to receive income only from Civic Societies and Accredited Organizations provides a simple and easy mechanism to audit every Government Transactions, thus holding Government Persons accountable.  Every Bitcoin sent to the Government must be sent to the Treasurer which is responsible of paying Government Officers.  This way everyone may see how much each Civic Society and Accredited Organization is spending on taxes and fees to purchase Government Documents.  On the other hand, allowing the Government to receive income from multiple sources would make it difficult to audit every transactions, and some transactions could remain hidden which could open a door to corruption. 
  7. Ensure privacy of document in the Audit Report.  If individuals were allowed to purchase Government Documents directly, then it would be very difficult to audit those transactions without disclosing the names of the individuals who purchased those documents.  Since transactions are aggregated by Civic Societies and by a Civic Society or an Accredited Organizations the Audit Report does not disclose any private information about individuals, however gives a clear account regarding the overall activities of each organization. Civic Society, such as a Civic Society specializing in tourism and sponsoring Visitors.
  8. Prevent a group of individuals to purchase influence in Government and/or control the population.  It is much more difficult for a group of individuals to purchase influence when such activities are illegal and all transactions are audited.  Certainly individuals with special interests may secretly send money to a Government Person, however such practice is quite risky, because if one party get caught, or denounce the other, then the deal is over... with consequences of treason.  Also, making a secret agreement with a Government Person is likely to be short lived, because after each election, the deal is over again.  Government employees cannot be hired longer than the term of the Government Officer, and consequently, there cannot be lifetime bureaucrats at Village Libre.  Moreover, if such a secret agreement is too secret, then the new Government Person may believe the proposal is a trap for impeachment, and likely to refuse, or denounce the individual(s) trying to purchase influence as traitor(s).  When a group of individuals is lobbying the Government, they want a stable structure to legalize their activities which would otherwise be considered criminal.  For instance, the counterfeiting of money is one of the oldest crimes in history, as the Coinage Act of 1792 stipulates that debasing or making the currency to "be of less weight or value" was considered treasonous and was punishable by death.  Today, the act of counterfeiting money, that is creating money out of nothing, is not only legalized, but praised by the mainstream media and academics.  Those teaching mainstream economics urge the Establishment to print more money to "save the economy" by bailing out the very same group who wrecked the economy.  Counterfeiting in secrecy could never work, both from a legal perspective and from an economic standpoint, because the victims would seek restitution from theft, or simply refuse to accept the counterfeited money. It would seem impossible, for example, to establish legal tender laws in favor of some debased coin, or of some fractional-reserve banknote, if the latter are per se illegal.  To circumvent this impasse, the banking Elite enters in a partnership with the government requesting a special legislation (law) authorizing them to create money out of nothing, with an extra provision to legalize coercion by forcing the population to use their fiat currency.  Without such law, no fiat currency would ever come into existence, and consequently no money could be created out of nothing.  In exchange, the banking Elite promise to the government the privilege of borrowing their fiat money, with interest, therefore having the taxpayers on the hook.  Everyone knows what happens next: the government becomes in a perpetual debt bondage, and so is the rest of the population where almost everyone must borrow money to buy a house, car, or start a business.  Fiat money has the power to enslave an entire nation where only a minority of intellectuals understanding sound economics is capable to explain what is going on.  The large majority of the population becomes addicted to easy money and begging for cheap credit, thus aggravating the situation furthermore.  Professors and those so-called "economic experts" keep educating brainwashing the population about the virtues of printing money, supposedly the panacea for poverty, scarcity and unemployment, however the sad reality is the complete opposite.  Unemployment remains high, and those fortunate to find employment must work harder and harder just to make ends meet, sending a large percentage of their income to banks just to pay interests on their debts.  For instance, on a typical mortgage for a house or factory, the banks will collect more in interests than what the workers would ever receive to manufacture the raw materials and build the structure.  With just a few keystrokes on a computer, the bank has the power to instantly create money for a loan, and during the lifetime of this loan, the bank will collect more income from interests than what was paid to the people who actually did the work.  Creating fiat money is a very profitable business... granting unlimited power to banks to rob the productive labor of others with little effort.  Since banks are creating new money when making a loan, they have no need for savers.  Sure, someone saving fiat money is always good for the banks so they plunder his assets by printing money which reduces the purchasing power of those savings.  What banks prefer is having more and more people borrowing their money and collecting interests on these loans.  Banks have no objections to Government taxes, because the poorer the people are, the more desperate they are to borrow money (at a higher interest rate) just for purchasing goods such as a house, car, or food.  Besides, the bulk of Government taxes are eventually collected by the Elite, so taxation is really a blessing for them. It is no coincidence there is a continuous erosion of the middle class with a corresponding accumulation of wealth by the Billionaire Club.  The richest individuals are advocating more Government taxes and regulations to cripple small entrepreneurs.  Just listen to Bill Gates and Warren Buffett lobbying for more taxes and regulations, however having themselves their private a tax-free foundation and the best plug for insider trading on government transactions, including bailing out speculators who should morally and financially go bankrupt.  Perhaps we should redefine the word hypocrisy regarding those men having the audacity to proclaim helping the poor and fostering equality.  Worse than paying taxes and interests on loans made of fiat money is the hidden tax of inflation.  Inflation is a concealed tax collected directly by the banks to further enrich their shareholders (the true shareholders are often unknown as it is the case of most Central Banks, including the Federal Reserve). Those who benefit by inflation do so, and must do so, at the expense of others.  Inflation is the most powerful tax of all, capable to rob the purchasing power of the entire existing money supply, including any money hidden under a mattress.  Inflation is so powerful that it has the power to destroy an entire economy, causing mass unemployment and often causing violent conflicts such as riots and a civil war.  Fiat money is the cause of inflation, and the amount which people lose in purchasing power is exactly the amount which was taken from them and transferred to the banking Elite by this process.  Inflation, however small, is evil, unless, of course, you listen to a brainwashed cog, or an intellectual paid by and working for the financial Elite.  Just as a reminder, inflation is, by definition, an increase of the money supply. When a bank is making a loan by creating money out of nothing, the bank is creating inflation.  Inflation rewards consumption and punishes savings, thus depleting the pool of real savings, the accumulation of capital necessary for job creation and economic growth.  Under inflation, the time preference of individuals is shifted from deferred gratification (investing) to instant gratification (living beyond their means on borrowed money).  Inflation creates an illusion of wealth, distorting the allocation of capital and the methods of production, thus sparking an unsustainable boom.  Its unavoidable aftermath, the readjustment of conditions to the real data of the market, often called a recession, crisis, or depression, depending on the intensity of the correction. The bust, however painful, is the only cure for liquidating such malinvestments.  Inflation has also a negative effect on the consumers.  The most notable effect of inflation is the rising of prices of goods and services.  The loss of purchasing power is the result of a direct wealth transfer from people holding money (the consumers and savers) to the banking Elite.  As a result, people have to work harder and harder just to keep up with the cost of.  Inflation has also a negative effect on the consumers.  The most notable effect of inflation is the rising of prices of goods and services.  The loss of purchasing power is the result of a direct wealth transfer from people holding money (the consumers and savers) to the banking Elite.  As a result, people have to work harder and harder just to keep up with the cost of living surviving.  When prices increase faster than income, people must either reduce their spending or borrow money in order to maintain the same quality of living.  Borrowing becomes such a social habit that it becomes the norm to borrow money for essential things of life, such as education, health care, shelter, transportation, energy, clothing and food.  The borrowing situation reaches a tipping point where there is just not enough money in the system to pay those loans.  The interest on those loans require the borrower to pay more than what he borrowed, however since almost everyone is in debt, the entire money supply cannot to pay the principal and interest of all outstanding loans.  The effect of paper asset devaluation would render every nation, corporation, and individual, insolvent.  To remain solvent, the banks must continue to inflate the money supply, otherwise there is a systemic failure of their pyramid scheme of fiat money.  The banking Elite fear deflation (typically when people deleverage their speculative "investments"), because that means they would lose control over their source of power, the creation and spending of money.  When people and businesses are no longer borrowing enough money, the banking Elite must resort to other methods to inflate the money supply, such as giving away money to themselves and bailing out their friends using fashionable term such as Quantities Easing or a Rescue Package.  To save the world from doomsday, the banking Elite is willing to drop money by helicopter as a mean of inflating the money supply.  The truth is a price decline is a good thing for consumers because they may purchase goods and services at a cheaper price, or buy more with the same amount of money.  Declining prices are also good for businesses because they may replace their inventory at a lower cost.  Just think about the constant decline of prices of computer equipment and how it benefited the computer industry as well as consumers.  Computers made many things cheaper, including data processing, communication and entertainment, even to individuals who are not using computers directly.  Declining prices also rewards savers, which in turns increases the pool of capital available necessary to fund education, research & development and the purchase of tools necessary to increase productivity.  Without true savings, there is no capital available to entrepreneurs for starting businesses and for hiring people.  When a society has a lot of savings, the supply of money available to borrow is large, and consequently the cost of borrowing money is low.  On the other hand, the boom produces impoverishment. But still more disastrous are its moral ravages. It makes people despondent and dispirited. The more optimistic they were under the illusory prosperity of the boom, the greater is their despair and their feeling of frustration. The individual is always ready to ascribe his good luck to his own efficiency and to take it as a well-deserved reward for his talent, application, and probity. But reverses of fortune he always charges to other people, and most of all to the absurdity of social and political institutions. He does not blame the authorities for having fostered the boom. He reviles them for the inevitable collapse. In the opinion of the public, more inflation and more credit expansion are the only remedy against the evils which inflation and credit expansion have brought about. Inflation begs for more inflation, which eventually pushes interest rates higher because when people expect a loss of purchasing power, they demand higher wages and/or higher returns on their savings.  When saving money is no longer worthwhile to an individual, he will spends his money, which in turns reduces the pool of savings.  It is not the consumption that drives the economy, but the production of good of services.  When production is strong, the economy is healthy, and consequently, consumer spending is high.  To stimulate the economy, the population must reduce their consumption and start saving.  Unfortunately, inflation is the antithesis of savings.  Inflation constantly reduces the purchasing power of money. To some extent, it is possible for people to protect their savings against this trend, but this requires thorough financial knowledge, the time to constantly supervise one’s investments, and a good dose of luck. People who lack one of these ingredients are likely to lose a substantial part of their assets, taking away their safety net and preventing them to enjoy a secure retirement.  Inflation creates class or group divisions, in which the victims resent the profiteers from inflation, and in which even the moderate gainers from inflation envy the bigger gainers. The consequence is despair and the eradication of moral and social standards. But it would be wrong to infer that inflation produces this effect mainly among the elderly.  These effects are especially strong among the youth as they learn to live in the present and scorn those who try to teach them ‘old-fashioned morality and thrift.’ Inflation thereby encourages a mentality of immediate gratification, speculation and gambling.  Inflation makes it possible for some people to get rich by speculation and windfall instead of by hard work. The profiteers from inflation tend to spend freely, frivolously, and ostentatiously. This increases the resentment of those who have been less favored.  When fiat money is accepted as currency, the banking Elite becomes the new masters.  Having the privilege to create as much money they want, the Elite has the power to buy rob the assets of an entire nation... with a few keystrokes on a computer.  It is estimated the Rockefellers' net worth is about 14 Trillions, and the Rothschilds' is over 100 Trillions.  The wealth gap between the Rothschilds and Bill Gates is the same gap between a millionaire and an individual working 12 hours a day in a sweatshop just to feed himself.  Whatever the Elite want... they get it by printing additional money necessary to persuade the individual to sell his assets.  When people are poor or find work to support their family, and fall victim of cheap labor to big corporations controlled by the Elite.  To some extent, everything has a price, and when the price is high enough, the owner will eventually sell his property.... including his soul.  Others, will gladly accept serving the Elite in exchange for money, power and/or fame.  The Elite controls the education centers, directly owns the media centers, and indirectly owns all the assets purchased on borrowed money or the financial assets denominated in fiat money.  Having no need to work for money, the Elite has the privilege to loan money at a cheaper interest rate than the rest of the working population.  Saving money is difficult when prices keep going up and whatever is left for savings is being eroded by inflation, thus giving an unfair competitive advantage to the Elite to loan money.  As a result, people in need borrow fiat money from the Elite rather from savers, thus creating more money which means more inflation.  Having the power to print an unlimited quantity of money, it is easy for the Elite to buy support necessary to retain control over a nation.  The Elite will sponsor any economist or professor willing to sell his soul in exchange for a pseudo-science theory worshipping fiat money.  No wonder why Keynesian Economics is being taught everywhere.  Likewise, the Elite will sponsor politicians supporting their cause, giving them free media coverage and money for their election.  If a politician opposing the banking cartel is nevertheless elected, the government is still obligated to service its debt which puts serious strain on the budget and reduces the funds available for government programs such as health care, education, social security, roads, etc.  Like most individuals and businesses, the Government's biggest expense is paying interest on a debt created out of nothing.  Banks have so much control of the government that they are bold enough to print money to provide themselves liquidity, and compel the government to borrow that money with interests, despite having the taxpayers protesting against such bailouts.  This situation, where banks have total control of the government, is present in every country.  It is so widespread, than people assume it is just the way life is.  At Village Libre we have no desire having banksters ruling our lives.  Freedom starts with a sound Constitution having strict rules forbidding the Government to grant privileges to any group, especially granting any monetary privileges.  In our community, we have the power to keep the fruit of our labor by rejecting legalized falsification of money.  If we tolerate having paper as legal tender, sooner or later, we will be facing the same fate as other nations: crouch down and kiss the feet of the new masters while begging them to spare a few paper notes.  One may argue that a group of individuals having special interests in controlling the Government may establish their Civic Society and "purchase" large quantities of Government Documents in hope to gain influence in Government, however the Audit Report would show an unusual ratio of documents per Citizen, and therefore exposing the deceit.
  9. Ensure the integrity of Government Documents which increases the recognition of our Passport and Driver License by other nations.  Respect is earned... and acting responsibly is the beginning of earning the respect of others.  Since only Civic Societies in good standing may purchase Government Documents, it becomes almost impossible for an individual to purchase a document, such as a Passport or Driver License, without being properly sponsored by a Civic Society.  Any request to purchase a Government Document must come from a Civic Society in good standing and the payment must be made through the Treasurer which will pay the appropriate party responsible of producing the document - typically the Mayor whose main duty is producing most Government Documents.  Once the document is ready, the Civic Society is the only entity authorized to pick up the document from the Print Office and deliver it to its customer.  All private information necessary for the production of Government Documents, such as name, date of birth, and picture, is stored in a database validated and controlled by the Privacy Guard.  The Privacy Guard cannot release this information to the Print Office unless all rules have been respected.  For instance, a Passport may be purchased only by a Citizen, which by definition must be a customer of a Civic Society willing to sponsor him as a Citizen.  To become a Citizen, one must have been a Resident for a minimum of 6 months and pass the Citizenship Test.  Likewise, a Driver License may be sold only to Residents and Citizens having a Civic Society taking responsibility to insure them as Driver.  Such simple rules ensure Visitors do not get a Passport, Driver License, or Residence Card, without living in Village Libre.
  10. Urge Civic Societies to remain in good standing.  Since only Civic Societies in good standing are allowed to purchase Government Documents, it become worthwhile for Citizens, Residents and Visitors to join a Civic Society in good standing.  Any Civic Society not respecting its obligations is forbidden to purchase Government Documents on behalf of its members, which will either force the Civic Society to rectify the situation, or see its members defect to other Civic Societies.  If individuals were allowed to directly purchase Government Documents, then they would simply bypass their Civic Society and get the documents themselves, thus rendering meaningless the concept of a Civic Society in good standing, and consequently obeying the rules, such as paying the Government Persons.  Indirectly, such rules also make each Civic Societies accountable for the action of its Citizens, Residents and Visitors.  If a Civic Society sponsors an individual who commits a crime, then their Restitution Reserve will be taken away and given as compensation to the victim(s).  Since Civic Societies have something to lose, they will be more careful in their decisions.
  11. Make ostracism powerful and effective.  An individual not obeying the rules of a Civic Society may get kicked out, and other Civic Societies may ostracize him.  For instance, a reckless driver may be unable to find any Civic Society willing to give him a Driver License.  If individuals were allowed to purchase Documents directly from the Government, then those individuals could try to negotiate a deal or bribe a Government Person.
  12. All groups are treated equally.  By restricting the Government to receive income only from Civic Societies, we eliminate the risk tax discrimination where one group of individuals becomes the target of a special tax to fund the Government.  Whatever the tax is a tariff on imports, a license fee, a sales tax, or just print money, one group will always be more affected than others.  Having the majority to decide which group shall pay the tax will always lead to political disputes and reduce social stability.
  13. Ensure prices are uniform.  If individuals were allowed to purchase documents directly from the Government, then the Government would have to accept other form of payments, including fiat (paper) money, such as U.S Dollars or Euros because not everyone may have Bitcoins or have the proper hardware to make mobile Bitcon payments.   Consequently, the prices of Government Documents would always vary because of fluctuations from the exchange rate between currencies.  Without a standard currency such as Bitcoin, document prices would have to be constantly be revised in every other currency.  People and businesses would lobby the Government for having their favorite currency accepted, and also to get an advantageous price in their currency, thus increasing the risk favoritism, bribes and corruption. By using Bitcoin, and only Bitcoin, as a payment method for Government Documents, we have a uniform mechanism to make sure everyone pays the same amount for the same document.  Civic Societies are free to collect whatever they want from their members.  For instance, a Citizen may do community work to receive his Passport, however the Civic Society must use Bitcoins to the Treasurer to purchase his Passport.
  14. Prevent the creation of a fiat currency.  By requiring all Government Transactions are done in Bitcoin, and only in Bitcoin, then the risk of having a fiat currency has been eliminated.  Only a Government has the power to create a fiat currency by requiring taxes to be paid in the fiat currency, thus creating a demand for that currency.  Also, every Treasury must offer the option to redeem gold in physical bullion which greatly decreases the risk of fractional-reserve banking.  Any practice of fractional-reserve banking would be dealt by Dispute Resolution Organizations as fraud or breach of contract.
  15. Guarantee payments to Government Persons, such as the Webmaster, Privacy Guard and Vote Keeper.  In order to remain in good standing, each Civic Society must keep a minimum quantity of gold as Restitution Reserve.  The Treasury responsible of holding this gold has the authority to automatically to initiate transfers from the Civic Society's account to the account of each Government Officer for paying the weekly Taxes.
  16. Efficiency.  Although the goal of this Constitution is to keep the Government small, a side benefit of requiring the Government to receive gold only from Civic Societies is efficiency.  First, there is a hidden cost of receiving funds from multiple sources, and the cost of collecting from delinquents is even greater.  With competent software developer(s), purchasing a Government Document could be as simple as a single mouse click made by an officer of a Civic Society.  There is no need to fill any form, because all the information is already stored in the Citizen Database, and the software powering the Government Website is fully capable to validate if all rules have been respected to issue the document, trigger the Treasury to transfer gold, and upon confirmation of the gold payment, send all the necessary information (name, date of birth, picture) to the Print Office, which in turn, could automatically start the production of the requested document.  It would be no surprise most Government Documents be ready by the next business day.  Civic Societies are likely to be physically nearby the Print Office to pick up the documents on behalf of their customers.  Efficiency also means the possibility of low prices, as a document such as a Driver License could cost less than a coffee cup purchased in a fast food restaurant.
  17. Make life more enjoyable for everyone because individuals and businesses do not have any payment due, nor have any deadline to file anything with the Government.  Only Civic Societies and Accredited Organization have obligations towards the Government, and their Restitution Reserve acts as a guarantee for the payment of their Taxes or Fees.

It is an act of treason for any Government Person to accept any payment from an individual, such as a Citizen, Resident or Visitor.  When an individual wishes a document, he contacts his Civic Society which will purchase the document from the Print Office on his behalf.  Once the document is ready, the Civic Society picks the document from the Print Office and delivers it to its customer.  Any income from the sale of Government Documents go directly to the Mayor which has the responsibility to run the Print Office.

Other Government Officers, such as the Webmaster, Privacy Guard and Vote Keeper are paid from Taxes levied on Civic Societies and from fees paid by Accredited Organizations.  Civic Societies pay taxes according to the number of Taxpayers while Accredited Organizations pay a Fee to be listed on the Government Website.  All Government Officers are elected by the Village Council, with the exception of the Mayor which is directly elected by the Citizens and the Chief Land Registrar which is elected by the Land Registrars.

Auditing of all Government Transactions

All Government Transactions must be audited to produce a daily Audit Report.  To ensure the integrity of the Audit Report, every Government Transaction must be carried through an official Treasury.  Consequently it is an act of treason for a Government Person to receive a payment or make a payment outside an official Treasury.

Audit Committee

The Audit Committee is has the authority to inspect all transactions of every Government Institution and Government Department.  This includes electronic communication between computers, financial transactions as well as any donation made to a Government Officer or Government Institution.

Real-Time Audit Report

The Government must display on its website every expenditure as well as its aggregated income.  Every time a Government Person makes an expenditure on behalf of the Government, that expenditure must be instantly posted on the Government Website.  The web page showing the Government Expenditures must show the transaction date, transaction identifier, the name of the recipient and his corresponding Civic Society, the description of the transaction, as well as the approximated transaction amount (in weight of gold).  To protect the financial privacy of government employees and contractors, the transaction amount is expressed by a range of order of magnitude, starting with either the digit 1 or 3.  For instance, a transaction of 45 grams of gold may be expressed as 10 to 100 grams, or as 30 to 300 grams.  It is up the recipient to decide which range he prefers others to see what quantity of gold he received from the Government.  Displaying the approximated transaction amount is important to prevent corruption because it makes it very difficult to hide transactions that are outside the scope of Government activities, or grossly overpriced items such as purchasing a toilet seat costing more than the median price of a house.  Citizens may view the picture of the recipient, a yearly summary of how much gold he received during the past 10 years, and the details of every transaction.  Citizens wishing to receive payments (gold) from the Government must accept having their name and picture visible to other Citizens.  Transparency starts by identifying who is receiving taxpayers' money.

The auditing of Government Income is done by grouping every 10 transactions together, and displaying the total amount of those transactions.  The idea behind grouping 10 transactions together is for protecting the privacy of individuals purchasing Government Documents because the transaction amount alone could disclose the type of document purchased, such as a visitor card, marriage certificate or birth certificate, thus greatly compromising privacy.  Following to the total amount must be the transaction identifiers and name of the Civic Societies corresponding to those 10 transactions.  Every time a Civic Society has accumulated 10 transactions, then an entry must be visible on the Government Website showing the total value of those 10 transactions, and the corresponding 10 transaction identifiers.  Again, to protect the privacy of individuals, only the first digit is displayed as the total.  For instance, if the total of 10 transactions equals 28 grams of gold, then the website will display 20 to 30.  The Government Website must display a weekly summary report for each Civic Society so people know how much each Civic Society spent since it was establishment.  Such report is vital to reveal any Civic Society trying to purchase influence in the Government.

Lastly, the Audit Report must show a balance sheet of each Government Department.  This is important to show to the public how much profit a Government Officer is making, as well as providing valuable financial information for a candidate wishing to be elected when drafting his budget contract.  The profit is expressed by a digit starting by 1 or 3.  As a result, if the Webmaster made a yearly profit of 2 Kg of gold, he may express his profit as between 300 and 3,000 grams, or between 1,000 and 10,000 grams of gold.

National Currency

There is no "national currency" at Village Libre.  Having a "national currency" or a Central Bank is strictly forbidden and considered an act of Treason by any Government Person recommending such idea.

Having a national currency restricts the freedom of individuals wishing to trade with the medium of exchange of their choice.  To provide transparency as well as uniform mechanism of collecting Taxes and Fees, Bitcoin has been chosen as the medium of payment.   People are free to use any medium of exchange for their day-to-day transactions, however Quasi-Government Organizations must use Bitcoin when paying their Taxes and Fees.

Bitcoin

Bitcoin is a decentralized virtual currency using peer-to-peer network technology to operate with no central authority.  Bitcoin is a product of the free market and its value comes from willing participants using/accepting Bitcoin as a medium of exchange.  Bitcoin is the opposite of a "fiat currency" because it is not mandated for use and acceptance by a government decree.

It is strictly forbidden to start another decentralized currency, or fork the current blockchain, because such action would represent the creation of a fiat currency.  Any discussion of creating a new legal tender, an alternative cryptocurrency, or forking from the current Bitcoin blockchain is considered an act of treason by any Government Person.  If a Government Person believes Bitcoin is inappropriate for the task, then he may recommend a comprehensive plan for replacing Bitcoin with Gold.  The original constitution was written to use gold, however after a careful review, Bitcoin was chosen as a superior currency because it offers transparency in Government Transactions which greatly helps fighting against corruption.  Also, Bitcoin provides additional benefits such as easy fungibility, instant transportation worldwide, and safety, as they cannot be stolen or destroyed by armed thugs wishing to destabilize our government.

Bitcoin Address

A Bitcoin Address is an identifier to send and store Bitcoins, similar as a bank account number.  Sending Bitcoins to someone is as easy as sending an electronic message to an email address.  All Bitcoin Addresses are public and so are all Bitcoin transactions.  To ensure Government Transparency, all Government Officers must publish on the Government Website their Bitcoin Addresses.  This way, the public may know how much each Government Officer receives and where the Bitcoins are spent.  To ensure Quasi-Government Organizations maintain the minimum Restitution Reserve, their Bitcoin Address holding their Restitution Reserve must ba also public on the Government Website.

Man-Hour

A Man-Hour is the amount of work performed by the average worker in one hour.  In this Constitution, one Man-Hour represents the median salary of a typical worker performing one hour of work.  To protect the population from exorbitant prices, every Government Document has a price ceiling expressed in Man-Hours. Using Man-Hour as a metric ensures every Government Document remains affordable to students, retired individuals, and the "Average Joe" working in a factory or at a retail store.  For instance, in this Constitution, the maximum price of a Driver License is 15 Man-Hours.  This way, the typical worker knows that he can purchase his Driver License by working about two days.  An individual earning half of the median salary knows he may purchase his Driver License with less than a week of work.  Likewise, a professional or skilled worker earning more than twice the median salary will afford a Driver License in less than a single day of work. This median salary is an important yardstick at Village Libre to ensure taxes, fees and other prices defined in this Constitution remain fair over centuries.

Value of one Man-Hour is calculated by averaging the median salary of the top ten (10) largest retail / department / food store.  People working in service or sales do symbolize the typical worker, and consequently their wages represent fairly the median hourly salary.  The largest retail store is determined by picking the employer doing business in Village Libre paying the largest number of hours to its employees.  This way, if a business is hiring only part-time employees, it may not count as the largest store, unless the sum of the hours worked by the part-time employees exceeds the number of hours worked by the employees of the other store hiring full-time employees.  An few examples of retail stores are Wal-Mart, Target, Home Depot and Costco.

Every quarter (4 times per year) the Treasurer has the responsibility of updating the value of the Man-Hour metric by finding the 10 largest employers and estimating what each employer is paying as the median wage.  The Treasury may ask how much people are earning, however people are free to decline to answer.  Calculating the median salary is much simpler than calculating the average salary, as there is no need to know how much the top and bottom earners are being paid.  All values must be published on the Government Website so they may be audited and criticized by Citizens.

The value of one Bitcoin is calculated by from the 7-day weighted moving average of the largest 10 Bitcoin exchanges in the world.  Again, the Treasuer has the responsibility of finding those Bitcoin exchanges and publishing on the Government Website the Bitcoin prices and volume exchanged for each exchanger.

Man-Hour Disputes

If a Citizen believes the calculated value of one Man-Hour in Bitcoin is incorrect, he has the right to submit a better calculation method.  The new proposed calculation method must be based on what is considered scientific while providing superior stability for the value of one Man-Hour in Bitcoin.  The new calculation method must differ by at least 10% from the existing calculation method to be elligible for a Referendum.  If the majority of the population agrees the calculation method shall be changed, then a Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars will resolve the issue by writing an essay and decide which calculation method shall be used to determine the market value of one Man-Hour in Bitcoin.

Item Median Hourly Wage Description
Driver License maximum 15 hours A Driver License costs a maximum of 15 hours of the Median Hourly Wage
Passport maximum 40 hours The price of a Passport must be less than the equivalent of 40 hours of the Median Hourly Wage
Restitution Reserve between 5,000 and 100,000 hours The Restitution Reserve must have gold corresponding to at least the equivalent value of 5,000 hours (about 3 years) of median salary.
Likewise, no Civic Society is required to have more gold than the equivalent of 100,000 hours (about 58 years) of median salary.
Juror's Salary minimum 1 hour The salary of a Juror cannot be lower than the Median Hourly Wage.
This way Jurors are guaranteed a minimum salary equivalent of what the typical worker earns.
Fine for Treason between 100 and 1000 hours An individual who committed an act of Treason must pay a fine between 100 hours (about 3 weeks of work) up to 1000 hours (about 8 months).
The maximum value is to prevent an excessive fine imposed to an individual.

Why not having "our currency" like every other country?

First, there is no such thing as "our" currency.  In the end, "our" means a currency controlled by an elite group having ties with a Central Bank issuing or "printing" the currency.  If "the people" have the right make decisions regarding the use of money, then it shall be "the people" deciding for themselves what currency to use for each and every transaction.  Having a national currency is nothing more than having a group of arrogant self-anointed bureaucrats claiming to represent "the people" by coercing the population to use their currency.

If a group of people wishes to have "its" currency, then they are welcome to create their own currency, however forbidden to force anyone to use it.  If their currency is of good quality, such as maintaining its value to purchase goods and services, then it is very likely others will be happy to accept it.  Each Civic Society is free to have its own currency, or group with other Civic Societies to establish a more credible currency, however no monopoly may be given to any entity (such as a bank, Civic Society or Accredited Organization) to issue the currency of Village Libre.

Although all transactions of the Government are done using Bitcoin as its currency, no entity has control on the creation (inflation) of Bitcoins.  Although Bitcoin is likely to play a minor role in the overall economy, as the government spending will be rather small, it is nevertheless very important to use Bitcoin for all Government Transactions to any other currency:  any currency issued by a bank or a foreign government is subject to the jurisdiction and the control of its issuer, which Village Libre could fall victim of manipulation by a foreign government, such as bullying, reporting requirements, tax withholding on transactions, currency control, fixed exchange rate, and so on.  Since we want Village Libre to be autonomous, we have to make sure our Government is independent and not controlled by a foreign bank or another government.  It would be a mistake to have our Constitution based on a foreign currency, because the foreign Central Bank may create inflation by printing more of its currency, causing business cycles and economic recessions within our community.  If the foreign Government inflating its money supply very rapidly, hyperinflation may completely destroy our economy.  Since we have no desire to interfere in the affairs of other nations, and we do not want to "pressure" foreign governments to change their monetary policies, the best solution is using a currency which is independent of politics, and Bitcoin is the perfect solution for all our Government Transactions.

It is very likely people will use the currency of the hosting country for most of their transactions, however our Constitution gives people total freedom to pick the currency of their choice.  Such freedom of choice is not only ethical but a safeguard in the event the hosting country is debasing its currency, typically by inflating its money supply.  Competition among currencies will ensure price stability as well the elimination the boom-bust cycle, which is caused by distorting the interest rates from market equilibrium.  Also, currency competition will allow different group of individuals to experiment and create their local currencies.  For instance, a group of individuals may establish a Civic Society to promote an alternative currency such as a time-based money or a personal equity-based currency.  Another group may establish an organization specializing in micro loans, usury-free banking, interest-free banking, or establish their bank to promote Social Credit among their members.  Some religions forbid payment of interests, and Village Libre offers to those individuals the opportunity to setup their own rules according to their faith. Village Libre enables all those socio-economic models to peacefully coexist.  Every organization has the freedom to accept and reject new members.  Likewise every individual is free to join and leave any such organization.  Such level of freedom is the basis for harmony and mutual respect.

Why not Bitcoin, Gold and Silver?

Using multiple medium of exchange is a bad idea.  Making Bitcoin, gold and silver as legal tender is essentially the making gold and silver legal tender, which is impossible.

The laws of economics, that is supply and demand, make it impossible to fix the ratio of gold and silver.  The market ratio, like all market prices, inevitably changes over time, as supply and demand conditions change. As changes occur, any fixed bimetallic ratio inevitably becomes obsolete. Change makes either gold or silver overvalued.

Bimetallism carries the seeds of its own destruction.  Gresham's Law comes into play, when several types of money have a conversion ratio specified by legal tender legislation, different from their market price, causing the overvalued money to drive undervalued money out of the market.  Or put simply, "the bad money drives the good money out".  People stop using the metal that is in reality more valuable than according to the letter of the law. The move valuable metal will be held or sold into other countries while the lower valuable metal will be used as the medium of exchange.

Bimetallism indirectly promotes the practice of fractional-reserve banking.  Theory and history demonstrate that fractional-reserve banking flourished in the wake of bimetallist legislation.  Fractional-reserve banking is the mother of fiat money: the supreme inflation technique creating economic and moral havoc in society.  Inflation is itself a dishonest act of legislation, and sets the example for private citizens.  Notwithstanding all the pious pretenses of governments that inflation is some evil visitation from without, inflation is practically always the result of deliberate governmental policy. Inflation is system of legalized plunder allowing one group to benefit at the expense of another. An actual transfer of wealth goes from the poor and the middle class to those in privileged financial positions. Inflation breeds envy, dishonesty and corruption in a nation. 

When an institution inflate the money supply by increasing the circulation of paper currency (or the electronic-equivalent), they do in principle what kings once did when they clipped coins. Diluting the money supply with paper is the moral equivalent of diluting the milk supply with water.

Civic Societies are free to use silver as their local community currency, however all Government Transactions must be done in Bitcoin, and only Bitcoin.

Replacing Bitcoin with Gold

In the event the Bitcoin protocol is unfit as the medium of exchange for Government Transactions, because it has been hacked and cannot be fixed, then this Constitution allows the use of Gold.

Of course changing from Bitcoin to Gold requires more work than a search and replace of the word Bitcoin by the word Gold.  Some recommendations:

No Monopoly shall be given to any group

Official Gold Vaults

A Treasury is a group of Citizens responsible of safekeeping the gold belonging to the Civic Societies as well as the bonus salaries of Government Persons.  To maintain the official status, a Treasury must have written contracts with a minimum of five (5) Civic Societies wishing to store their gold with it, and three (3) Dispute Resolution Organizations willing to arbitrate in case there are conflicts between Civic Societies and the Treasury, or between individuals and the Treasury.  A Civic Society may do business with multiple Treasuries.

At its bare minimum, a Treasury must have a vault to keep the gold safe and allow regular auditing from Civic Societies.  The gold kept as Restitution Reserve must be allocated and the serial numbers of the gold bars must be visible on the Government Website.  Each Treasury is responsible of supplying a list of gold bars allocated as Restitution Reserve to the Government Website via web service.  The allocation of gold bars is done by the Civic Societies which pick which gold bar they wish to own.  The ownership of gold bars is important to avoid fractional reserve banking, or the sharing of the same gold bar with multiple Civic Societies.  This way, if a gold bar is missing, then there is a form of accountability.

Each Treasury is free to offer extra services to its customers, such as online payments, purchasing and selling gold and other precious metals, currency conversions, and loans, lines of credits, credit cards.

Freedom of doing business is the core value at Village Libre, which means no Treasury has a monopoly.

To ensure integrity, quality service and affordable price, by having multiple treasuries, thus creating a system of competition.  Citizens do not vote directly on which Treasury their Civic Society uses, however they "vote" by being a member of a Civic Society.  Civic Societies will have an incentive to pick the Treasury that best suit their needs of their members.   If a Treasury

 is encouraged by having a quality service and price fairness, multiple treasuries are encouraged.

 

Auditing of Official Gold Vaults

It is the duty of the President and Vice President of the Civic Society to audit the gold allocated as Restitution Reserve every year.  To remain in good standing, the Restitution Reserve of each Treasury must be audited every 90 days.  Since each Treasury has a minimum of five (5) Civic Societies, it is the responsibilities of the Civic Societies to schedule their audit, and spread them over the months so the time between audits is no more than 90 days.

The audit itself is rather simple: the President and Vice President must verify the serial numbers of the gold bars allocated to their Civic Society.  It is likely the Civic Society may own other assets, such as gold for paying their Membership Fees and cash for other transactions, however those assets are not required to be audited.  Only the gold allocated as Restitution Reserve must be audited.  Civic Societies wishing to reassure their customers may also have a third party to audit their books, the same as businesses do audit their operations.  The Government Website must show the amount of Restitution Reserve available, and with a warning if this amount is below the required threshold.

 must be audited by the Civic Societies.

 

Market Economy

Personal liberty and free market economy are one and the same.  Here are a few clarifications on what freedom means:

Interest Rates

The Government is forbidden to manipulate or attempt to fix any interest rate.  Interest is the ratio in the mutual valuation of present goods against future goods. The interest rate is the market equilibrium between willing savers and borrowers.

Usury

Usury is a term which originally was used to denote the charging of interest, but is also used to express the charging of excessively high interest rates.  Some individuals believe collecting any interest on a loan is usury.  Although usury may be considered immoral, a loan is nevertheless a mutual agreement between a borrower and a lender.  Every borrower would love to borrow money at zero interest, however at this rate there would be no incentive for the potential lender for taking the risk of a total loss, and in the best case, get the same amount back with the trouble of collecting payments.  If the borrower defaults, goes bankrupt or dies, then the lender is left with a loss, because nobody else will repay this loan.  Having a law forbidding collecting interests on a loan would actually penalize borrowers because there would be few lenders, and consequently little money available to borrow.

One proposed solution to the usury "problem" is a Central Bank printing money and loaning it at zero interest to borrowers.  This begs the question: who shall have control of the Central Bank with the power to decide who gets a loan and who is denied a loan.  Granting the privilege to a group of individuals to control the money supply opens a wide door for corruption while posing an extreme danger for the safety and prosperity of the entire community.  Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.  Let's go back and learn a bit of history regarding Central Banking:

Permit me to issue and control the money of a nation and I care not who makes its laws.
-- Mayer Amschel Rothchild, 1790, founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty.

His son, Baron Nathan Mayer Rothschild boasted:

I care not what puppet is placed upon the throne of England to rule the Empire on which the sun never sets. The man that controls Britain's money supply controls the British Empire, and I control the British money supply.
-- Baron Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1815, son of Mayer Amschel Rothchild.

Nathan would go onto brag that in the 17 years he had been in England he had increased the £20,000 stake given to him by his father, 2500 times to £50 million.  Such profit increase is the equivalent of loaning $20 and collecting $50,000 from interest over a period of 17 years.  No sane person would borrow $20 and agree to repay $50,000, or paying 250,000% interest on a 17-year loan.  How could this happen?  Did Nathan coerced anyone to borrow his money at usury rate?  Of course not!  Those having the privilege of controlling the money supply may loan the same money multiple times.  Instead of making a single loan of $20 at the usury rate of 50% interest, the banker simply loan the same money 10 times at 5% interest rate.  At the end of the year, the banker collected $10 of interest rate from his initial capital of $20, hence collecting an effective 50% interest on his capital.  For the borrower's perspective, he made a great deal, borrowing at a low 5% interest rate.  Money creation gives an unfair advantage to those in control of the money supply, because others having to work to earn money cannot compete against someone loaning fiat money.  The problem is not about one group making more profits than others; it is about one group ending with a monopoly on the loan market - at the expense of everyone else, including the destruction of the currency when inflation becomes hyperinflation.  Everyone want to borrow money at low interest rate, so the banker having the privilege to loan fiat money end up making all the loans, and eventually controlling the entire nation.  Those loans of fiat money are creating inflation which is a tax on the rest of the population using that money.  To summarize, if Nathan was capable of loaning 12 times his initial capital of £20,000 while collecting a 5% interest rate on each loan over a period of 17 years, he would have ended up with a fortune over £59 million.  The power of compounding interests over decades amount to billions and trillions, as it is the case today with the wealth of the Rothschild family.  This historical example shows the power of money creation and why it is important to not have a Central Bank at Village Libre.

Nathan's mother understood the power of money creation:

If my sons did not want war... there would be none.
-- Gutle Schnaper, 1849, wife of Mayer Amschel Rothchild before her death.

Those in control of the money supply have the power to control the government, including waging war against another country.  The Elite decide which country goes to war against another, and the existence of a Central Bank introduces an occasion of sin for the government.  The elected officials have little to say except going along with what the Elite had decided, otherwise facing replacement by another puppet who will obey the Elite.  Politicians who are warmongers receive help for their electoral campaign, such as generous funding and free publicity from mainstream media (which is controlled by the Elite).  Those opposing the war or a Central Bank are censored or ridiculed.

Volumes of history books have been written on wars, however little has been said on the role of Central Banks funding those wars.  There is a direct link between Central Banks and wars.  The Elite does not want to bear the cost of any war, so it uses a Government for doing the dirty job.  If the Elite had to pay for their wars, there would be none, because war is far more expensive than peace, and consequently no profits.  For instance, securing oil through war is far more expensive than purchasing the oil at premium.  The vast amount of money poured out to support a war is permanently gone without bringing any economic return.  On the other hand, if the cost of a war could be externalized, then there is a business model for waging war.  To the Elite, the population is there to pay the cost of their wars, both financially and by providing men to sacrifice their lives to enrich them.  The Central Bank is there to extract wealth from the population by printing money, and loaning that money to the government at interest.  The Elite has no loyalty and no ethics; it will not hesitate to finance both sides of the war, as it did countless times in the past.  To the Elite, it costs them nothing creating loans and the returns are enormous: the customer(s) borrowing the money (the Government) will be in a perpetual debt bondage, meaning the Elite will reap taxes from the middle class for centuries.  Also, there are other benefits to the Elite for waging wars, such as getting rid of politicians they dislike, securing a market of natural resources, selling war material at an exorbitant price, or introducing new legislation or regulations to cripple competition and restrict our freedoms.  War is not a product of the free market; it is the by-product of an Elite having the privilege to externalize its costs to the government.  Anyone intellectually coherent for peace must reject the notion of a Central Bank.

A government without a Central Bank must tax its citizen to raise money for war expenditures.  Taxes annoy people, inspire anger, revolt, and even revolution.  Printing money is an essential tool to fund wars without a taxpayer revolt.  Inflation is a hidden tax, often perceived as a blessing (people always want easy money), and when inflation becomes a visible problem, people blame businesses for greed and/or beg the Government to do something... such as lowering the interest rates which creates more inflation, or establish a scheme of price controls which causes shortages and long waiting lines.  More than financing wars, the Central Bank creates financial bubbles that lead to economic dislocation, such as the technology bubble of the late 1990s or the housing bubble.  While millions of individuals lost their jobs, assets and homes during the economic crisis of 2007-2010, the total wealth of billionaires and millionaires in the U.S. grew 12 percent in year 2010, hitting $1.53 trillion.  The total wealth of billionaires grew even faster. These are all a result of the monopolization of money.

Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
-- Lord Acton

It is utopia to believe in the establishment of a Central Bank, which grants unlimited power to an Elite, and hoping those individuals will never use or abuse that power. 

Whoever controls the volume of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce.
-- Paul Warburg, architect of the Federal Reserve System and drafter of the Federal Reserve Act enacted December 23, 1913.

Paul Warburg was one of the wealthiest men in America and a director of I.G. Chemical Corp. and Agfa Ansco, Inc., firms that were controlled by I.G. Farben, the infamous German cartel that sponsored and funded Adolph Hitler to power.  He was also a director of the Council on Foreign Relations which is a think tank.  His son, James Warburg has gained some notoriety for the following quote:

We shall have world government, whether or not we like it. The question is only whether world government will be achieved by consent or by conquest.
-- James Warburg, February 17, 1950, to the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.

The problem with central banking is much deeper than having an elite making insane profits from collecting interest on fiat loans, triggering and financing wars, and/or controlling the Government.  Having a Central Bank requires an absolute monopoly on the money supply.  Creating such a monopoly requires legislation forbidding anyone else to issue a competing currency.  With such a law granting a monopoly, the Elite is given a license for legal plunder and a façade of legitimacy to jail (and/or kill) anyone not complying with their legislation.  Of course, the banksters do not wish to kill their slaves, however if legislation should authorizes them, they will not hesitate to call the police for help and do what is necessary to preserve their monopoly.  Coercion is the only way fiat (paper) money may come into existence.  For those who are religious and believe usury is a sin, the act of killing is a much greater one: it's a crime!

Some individuals railing against usury argue that since every country now has a Central Bank, all what is necessary is taking control of the Central Bank (good luck) and issue loans of fiat money at zero interest.  According to them, there would be no usury while providing economic stability and making the community prosperous. Not quite!

Loaning money that does not exist is the moral equivalent of diluting the milk supply with water: it creates inflation which is theft towards the rest of the community using the currency.  When a loan of fiat money is created, new money enters into circulation which thereby increases the money supply (the definition of inflation), and consequently dilutes the value of all existing money.  Over time, as the zero-interest loan is paid back, the money returned to the bank does not cancel out its original introduction because the loan is paid with diluted money.  Once new money enters into circulation in a community, the entire money supply is diluted permanently.  Therefore paying the same amount back is like borrowing at negative interest rate.  Lending money at negative interest rate is the equivalent of paying people to borrow, which opens the door for massive borrowing, overconsumption, wild speculation and economic bubbles.  The more people borrow, the faster the money supply increases, and the stronger consumer prices rise, eventually leading the way to hyperinflation.  Worse of all is the depletion of the pool of real savings which leads to a reduction of production, increase of unemployment and poverty.

Loaning fiat money at zero interest is unsustainable and catastrophic.  The interest on a loan is merely a throttle to determine if the borrower has the ability to pay the loan and to give him an incentive to pay back the loan.  Because of inflation which reduces the purchasing power of money due to the creation of new money, the bank does not really make as much profit as it appears.  Since by creating the loan it reduces the effective purchasing power of the currency, it's profits are worth less than the value of the money at the moment the loan was created.  However, since the bank is creating money out of nothing, its cost of making the loan is almost zero (except for the trouble of printing the money or punching a few keystrokes on a computer), therefore any profit on that loan, albeit in diluted money, still represents an infinite return on its "investment".  In other words, any interest collected on a loan made money created out of nothing represents an infinite interest rate - the very definition of usury which is charging excessive interest on a loan.  Conclusion: a fiat money system is fraud, however you slice and dice it.  Either it is the borrower stealing from the community by borrowing at zero interest, or it is the bank practicing usury by collecting interests on a loan made of nothing.

Anyone still insisting on having a Central Bank to prevent usury does not understand the importance of sound money, such as gold and silver.  Having a Constitution forbidding interest on loans would be an economic suicide, and would require coercion and violence towards innocent citizens.  We do not achieve virtue with guns and violence.  Besides, anything illegal creates a black market which breeds criminality and more violence.  The most violent period of history in the United States was when alcohol was prohibited.  Prohibiting loaning money with interest would give rise to organizations of loan sharks collecting their payments the same way the mafia is collecting their protection money.

It is much better to have a few "immoral" individuals mutually agreeing to borrow and loan money with interest, than having a black market of loan sharks, or banksters ruling our lives, forcing the large majority of the population into a debt bondage of fiat money.  If a Civic Society wishes to ban usury, it is free to do so.  People may join or leave this Civic Society if they want to borrow or lend money with or without interest.

Under a system of sound money, the incentive for saving will be greater than under a fiat money system.  Therefore the pool of savings will be greater, and consequently competition among lenders will keep interest rates low.

Minimum Wage

There is no minimum wage at Village Libre.  Prohibiting voluntary exchanges is immoral.  If two individuals agree to exchange labor and money, then it is nobody else's business to intervene.  Besides, minimum wage legislation hurts the poor.  Violence against those who voluntarily exchange goods for services removes any chance for the poor from escaping poverty.  The cartoon Edgar the Exploiter (7 minutes) gives an illustration of the minimum wage hurting the unskilled worker.

Civic Societies and Accredited Organizations are free to set a minimum wage for their members, however only to their members.  If an individual feels exploited, he is free to seek help from his Civic Society which may boycott the employer, however in no way a group of individuals (including the Government) may use coercion towards an employer who is paying low wages.

This Constitution has a "minimum wage" for certain activities, such as participating to as a member of a Jury.  This is by no mean a minimum wage law, as it only applies to a specific task defined in this Constitution.

Collective Bargaining, Labor Unions and Trade Unions

People at Village Libre are free to form any union or Accredited Organization to increase their position in collective bargaining, however cannot force or intimidate any individual to join their group.  Those who do not wish to join the collective agreement are free to negotiate directly with their employer.  If people are free to join an association or union, then they must have the same freedom to leave.  There is no such thing as a "contract" forcing someone to join a group (it is called extortion), no more than it is valid to have a contract preventing someone from leaving a group (it is called coercion).

All members of a union must have the freedom of leaving a union anytime without any kind of penalty.  For instance, a union is forbidden to have any exit fee to a member leaving.  If the union is negotiating with an employer, they may ask for an upfront payment or a payment right after the collective agreement is signed, however cannot have a fee to a member leaving the union.  A union contract is void and null if contains clause specifying a member cannot break the picket line during a labor conflict.  Any union member initiating violence or violating this Constitution will receive a Treason Warning.

Citizens of Village Libre

Citizenship is the Social Contract.

Citizenship is by covenant and qualification rather than by birth alone.  We want to develop and maintain a culture of liberty, and ignorance is the true enemy of liberty.  An ignorant populace with the power to vote themselves benefits without any understanding of basic economics and law will vote themselves privileges at the expense of others.  Soon, a minority will become serf, forced to pay benefits to others, while the elite is reaping the largest share of the loot. Since the Government is forbidden to be involved in education, the solution is to ensure citizens understand liberty by giving them a test.  The test does not have to be tricky, complex or difficult. The questions and answers are known in advance on the Government Website, so that people can openly prepare for the test.  By linking knowledge of liberty to citizenship, rather than trying to control education (which is a violation of liberty), the rights of each individual will be preserved.

Requirements to Become a Citizen of Village Libre

Citizenship Test

Benefits of Becoming a Citizen

Requirements to Become a Resident of Village Libre

Benefits of Becoming a Resident

Requirements for Visitors

Children of citizens fall under the protection of their parents’ citizenship until reaching an age or ability to become self-responsible, or they become disqualified by criminal or rebellious behavior. [Children of citizens (or residents, for that matter) automatically come under the respective category of protection that their parents possess. Thus, children are fully protected under the umbrella of their parents’ citizenship, but aren’t considered citizens themselves until they qualify. Once reaching the minimum age to apply for citizenship, they would become "residents" until they otherwise qualify for personal citizenship status.]

The only duty of the citizen or resident is maintaining membership with any Civic Society in good standing.  One is welcome to live his entire life as a Resident without any harassments, however cannot vote, cannot purchase weapons, cannot own any land on the territory.  If citizenship revoked, the individual may stay as a Resident.  The individual has one year to sell his land, otherwise an auction is made and the proceeds of the sales are given to the individual.

Benefits to Visitors

 

Civic Societies

A Civic Society is a local government of the people by the people and for the people, with unanimous consent of the governed.

The Civic Society is the core institution at Village Libre.  The purpose of a Civic Society is creating a government-recognized community of individuals sharing common values.  A Civic Society is somewhat like a Local Government, having the authority to make rules and enforce those rules, however only to its members.  Each Civic Society is therefore a source contractual Polycentric Law, thus overlapping its jurisdiction with other Civic Societies on the territory.  In technical terms, Village Libre is a Panarchy of Local GovernmentsPanarchy is the human right to choose your government as you choose your religion. It is about the right of every human being to live in a government to which they give their consent freely and fully. It is about the right of every human being to live in a government that fully respects them as a human person. Each government is to be peopled by, and only by, those who freely choose it. These governments do not claim to represent all people within a territory, but only those who choose to be part of them, just as a religious congregation does not claim to represent all people in the territory in which it serves, but only its members. Each government in turn provides services to those who have chosen it and to no others.

The Civic Society is responsible of providing to its members the following: personal security, protection of property, immigration & citizenship, rules of conduct, morality, enforcement of contracts, child support, education, funding for emergency health care. Citizens decide what quantity and quality of services they want from their Civic Society.  Citizens, Residents and Visitors may pick any Civic Society they wish.  Competition among Civic Societies will ensure the rules are fair and the price is right. Citizens may also establish their own Civic Society if unable to find one to suit their needs, provided they meet the minimum criteria.

A Civic Society is a group consisting of a minimum of 10 Citizens having written contracts with a minimum of 3 official Dispute Resolution Organizations, and maintaining at all times, the minimum capital of gold for the Restitution Reserve in an official Treasury. The gold is a kept as collateral to pay restitution to the victim(s) in case a member of the Civic Society commits a crime, or causes non-contractual damage to someone else.

The Civic Society has the authority to nominate judges, notaries, marry people, issue marriage certificates, birth certificates, driver licenses and passports.  Large Civic Societies may also operate prisons provided they respect the entire Bill of Rights for Prisoners.

Duties of a Civic Society

From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.
-- Karl Marx, 1875.

Although Civic Societies have duties, individuals have no duties, except to never initiate violence towards others.  It is up to the Civic Society to draft contracts with its members about the fee structure, rules and obligations.  For instance, if a citizen volunteers as a Border Officer for 8 hours per month, he pays no fees. Civic Societies are likely to provide welfare to their members and take care of others in need, similar as churches help their members in needs.  People are more likely to help people they know, compared to giving away money to a large bureaucracy which may be corrupt and the recipient is unknown.  The market of charity organizations is already large, and because the Government of Village Libre is forbidden to provide any "safety nets", the private charity will be there to fill-in the void.  Some individuals will volunteer their time while some others will provide the funds to run either the Civic Society or a charity organization.  As it is the case today, it likely that wealthy businesses will be happy to sponsor charitable causes to increase their reputation towards the community, however some will never make any charity contributions.  Since there are no taxes at Village Libre, there will be far more money left in the hands of individuals and businesses to take care of others.  Each Civic Society is sovereign, with the full flexibility to write and enforce rules on its members, provided those rules do not violate this Constitution. Members (citizens, residents, visitors) may pick any Civic Society, so if a Civic Society is too expensive or has too many rules, they have a choice to pick another Civic Society, or establish a Civic Society of their own.

Panarchy calls for tolerance and the respect of the choices of others.  Village Libre is a peaceful place for everyone to flourish and see their ideas realized, including those who are communists wishing pool resources, or socialists who feel safer having several safety nets, or those individuals who prefer to rely only upon themselves.  The minorities are no longer suppressed by the majority, and are no threat of becoming the majority to impose their values on others.

Education

Education is the responsibility of the parents. Responsibility does not mean that the parents must do home schooling, however they are in control of the education of their children.

 have to do home schooling, or group together to for the schooling,  It is up to the Civic Society of the parents to decide what is acceptable and establish a curriculum in case there are parents neglecting their duties.  It is very likely Civic Societies will require their members to pay a small fee to provide education for children whose parents cannot afford school, or to sponsor talented teenagers to get a higher education such as University.

Children have the right to pick their education, provided

businesses sponsoring

Health Care

People joining Village Libre must accept the value that health care should be affordable and accessible to everyone, not just for a group of individuals or the elite.  For this reason, the Government of Village Libre is prohibited to fund and/or regulate health care in any way.  Without dwelling on the issue, we want the reader to take notice that governments have a poor track record of being cost effective, and that governments are racists, often denying health care access to non-citizens, such as new immigrants and undocumented individuals often labeled as illegal aliens.

To facilitate individuals finding a good health care provider, the Webmaster has the authority maintain a database listing all health care providers on the Government Website.  The Webmaster is forbidden to pick which health care provider may appear the Government Website, as it is the responsibility of a Civic Society to nominate a health care provider.  If an individual or business wishes to appear on the Government Website as a health care provider, then he must find a Civic Society willing to sponsor him or his business.  The sponsoring Civic Society may require a fee and set rules to qualify the individual or business as a health care provider.  Please notice the Civic Society sponsoring a health care provider may be different from the Civic Society sponsoring an individual as a Citizen, Resident or Visitor.  Visitors are welcome to appear on the Government Website as health care providers, however they must find a Civic Society willing to sponsor them with the status of Visitor.  Besides, it gives a bit more credibility to become a Resident or Citizen when doing business in a community.

The Webmaster also has the authority to maintain a database of performance ratings and feedback comments from individuals, thus giving a boost to the good health care providers while exposing the quacks.  Again, the Webmaster cannot pick which feedback comment may appear in the Government Website.  If there is a dispute between a health care provider and an individual regarding a negative feedback comment, then it is to the Civic Societies of the health care provider and the individual to resolve the dispute.  If the Civic Societies are unable to agree, then a DRO will arbitrate.  The Civic Society of the individual who wrote the comment has the authority to hide the negative comment, however the comment must stay in the database, in case where the negative comment was a genuine complaint against a health care provider.  Only the Civic Society of the individual who wrote the comment has the authority to unhide the comment.  Consequently, if an individual feels his complaint against a health care provider is very important, he is free to pick another Civic Society willing to unhide the negative comment.  A new dispute may be initiated between the health care provider and the individual.

Freedom of speech guarantees the absolute right of every individual to create their own website or write a book exposing a business, such as a health care provider, without the fear of being sued in court.  However because we aim having fair and reliable feedback comments on the Government Website, there is a mechanism to prevent vindictive negative comments or feedback extortion where the customer threatens to leave a negative comment unless the health care provider cuts him a better deal than previously agreed.  As a result, there are rules to post comments on the Government Website, and such rules grant the authority to a Dispute Resolution Organization to decide what is considered acceptable.  The DRO may require the customer to reword the text if he wants his negative feedback comment to be displayed on the Government Website.  Freedom of speech does not mean someone else, like the Webmaster, is obliged to host (display) one's comments on his website.

Some individuals may argue that listing the health care providers on the Government Website is a form of subsidy to the health care industry.  They are correct because the salary of the Webmaster is paid by the Civic Societies on a per capita basis.  Paying the salary of a software developer to write the necessary code to list the health care providers and store their feedback comments in a database is a small price to pay for stimulating competition among health care providers, thus ensuring quality health care is affordable.  Please notice there is a sharp difference between having the Government deciding which medical procedure/product/device is legal and/or illegal, or allowing the Government to give money directly to health care providers, than giving to the Webmaster the authority to maintain a directory of health care providers with feedback comments.  If Citizen really oppose such an idea, they are free to elect a Webmaster promising to keep hidden the directory of health care providers.  Other websites are free use the original list from the Government Website and maintain their own directory of health care providers with feedback comments.

 

 

The Webmaster may also maintain a

 has the authority to add categories of health care providers.  Search engines make billions per year with pay-per-click keyboard bidding, and the Government could fund itself through this mechanism.  It is very like

list the health care providers with the highest feedback rating.  It is very likely new health care providers would be happy to bid for keywords as sponsored links on the search page.

Health care has always been an issue, and the Government should do something about it! Here it is!

 an industry which could save lives

Other categories, such as massage therapists, eye care, etc.

This is why during the election of a Webmaster, picking the Webmaster asking for the cheapest budget may not always be the best choice, no more than when hiring a CEO or an employee.  Some Webmaster may request a higher budget for their team and IT infrastructure, however may well worth it.

  Nobody knows when they will need to find a good health care provider

raising the bar, by displaying rating scores of health care providers.

Someone may do business as a health care provider without being listed, however being listed is likely to give credibility to his reputation as a health care provider.

 the cheapest way is to list all health care providers

It is true, however i

 

 medical field, alternative medicine, Medical equipment

is displayed on the list, as it is th

  Civic Societies have the authority to add (and remove) health care providers, and individuals have the option to add feedback comments.  This way, only the best health care providers will remain in business and the quacks will be exposed.  The Webmaster may add categories and keywords for people to search different types of health cares, or health specialists.

 

We want everyone to have access to a reliable and trustworthy list of health care providers. Competition along with feedback comments

In some way, the Government Website listing health care provider may appear as a subsidy to the health care industry, however the goal is to provide a directory to contact a health care provider in case there is an emergency.

The list of health care providers and the feedback comments must be accessible in to all in a structured format such as XML, so other websites may display the same information as they wish.

Webmaster is not obliged to maintain such list.  As a matter of fact, if he is not interested, is likely to do a sloppy job which is essentially the same as not maintaining the list.

Funding of Life-Threatening Medical Emergencies

Every Civic Society must accept their obligation of releasing funds from their Restitution Reserve on behalf of its members (Citizens, Residents and Visitors) in case there is a life-threatening medical emergency.  This clause is to ensure an urgent life-threatening medical operation is not delayed because the health care providers are evaluating if the patient has the capacity to pay the medical bill.

We do not want the average individual on the street to have to make the cruel decision.  He is entitled to receive compensation for transporting the individual to a health care center, plus any expenses.  He has no obligation, however having a bit of reward will help.

  It is up to each Civic Society to list which health care providers are

Non aging

the bill.  It is up to each Civic Society to have a contract with its members about their policies

about emergency medical services and a schedule for repayments.

Some may argue this is a disguised mandatory health care.  There is a difference between universal health care where every medical operation

Providing the funding does not mean the medical services are free to the individual in need.

 but that the health care providers , but that the medical service providers will be paid without

Emergency health care is a condition where the life

The most important is to save life, and the medical bill may always be paid later.  As in all societies, some individuals will gladly pay their medical bill and some will be unable to afford the medical services, meaning the Civic Society will have to bear its costs.

Is this mandatory health care?  It is for the case of an accident

Provide the funds; it does not mean the care is free, however we do not want hospitals to delay an urgent operation because they are unsure to be paid.

Likewise, a Civic Society has the duty to have funds available to its members when traveling to foreign countries.  We do not want our citizens to be a burden on the health

Like a traveling insurance.  It is up to the Civic Society to charge an extra fee to an individual traveling a lot, or have an agreement with him that he will refund the Civic Society in case of a medical emergency, or that he already has existing traveling insurance.

Welfare

Each Civic Society is free to offer welfare to its members and others in need.  Welfare may be on a charity basis, as a contract when an individual joins a Civic Society.

One Free Meal Per Month

Since the Government is forbidden to offer welfare to the population, and Civic Societies may comtribute little to help those really in needs, each Taxpayer must give one free meal per month to someone in need.  This the civic duty of each Taxpayer.  Those who are not considered Taxpayers, because they are too young, too old, or are tax exempts due to a medical condition, are not subject to this rule.

The Taxpayer may cook himself the meal and invite someone to his place, or his Civic Society may organize a monthly event offering free meals according to their number of Taxpayers.  Another option is the Civic Society may purchase food coupons from a Work-for-Food Coordinator and have the Work-for-Food Coordinator distribute the meals.

The recipient of those free meals are:

 

Child Support

Freedom, from an existential perspective, cannot be separated from responsibility. With freedom comes responsibility. Yet, it is common for many people to seek freedom while trying to avoid responsibility.  People are free to chose to have children, however we must bear the responsibilities of their actions, meaning we have the moral duty to take care of their children.  It is the role of Civic Societies to establish policies on child support and to the Dispute Resolution Organizations to arbitrate in case there is a conflict between parents.  Individuals considering having children are recommended to pay special attention to policies on child support policies from their Civic Society.  The parents may decide to pick another Civic Society if they feel the policies are too strict, or write a contract regarding the duties and responsibilities of each parent.  For instance, a woman wishing to have a child from a "sperm donor" may sign a contract she takes full responsibility and will never request money for child support from the donor.

Child Abuse

Peer pressure and ostracism.  The DRO may decide to waive.

Even the Treasury has its word to say about child abuse, by refusing doing business with a Civic Society failing to address the problem.

 Cannot invite visitors, get a DL or order a passport.

Jury of parents

Child Pornography

Property rights forbids child pornography, as the child is the owner of his body.  Although a child is unable to make rational decisions on the use of his body, his body remains his property, and consequently, any abuse or aggression towards his body, such as child pornography, is a crime.

Because many governments use "child pornography" as a way to censor the Internet, or to justify unfair laws, such as denying the right to remain silent in court, for the rare case a password may be required to unlock a computer containing child pornography material, this Constitution will spell out clearly the policy regarding child pornography.

If an individual is accused of child pornography, then he has the obligation to provide all passwords on all the files on his computer(s) and/or electronic devices.  The computer must be brought in court before the judge or jury, where the password is given, and the judge or jury open the file.  Refusal to do so implies he is guilty.  On the other hand, if no child pornography material is found, that is, no images and/or videos, then the accused is entitled a minimum of 1 Kg of gold from the plaintiff as compensation.  This is important to prevent an individual to use the "child pornography" clause to steal information from the computer of a competitor, such as trade secrets, at the bargain cost of 1 Kg of gold.

Create Your Own Government

If a Citizen wishes to create a new community, all is required is finding 9 other Citizens willing to join him and establish a new Civic Society.  This is far more rewarding than having to wait 4 years for the next election while trying to persuade the majority of the population to vote for a candidate which may support such ideas.  At Village Libre, within days, a new Civic Society may get the "official status", with the full authority to sponsor new Citizens, Residents and Visitors. The cool thing about panarchism is that it allows communities to form and experiment with different rules and structures.  Like a religion, some people will join and some will leave.

As a rule of thumb, individuals are free to leave their Civic Society at anytime, without notice and without any penalty.  Since Civic Societies are quasi-governments and may do sneaky things to their members, this clause is important to avoid hidden cancellation fees which may reduce the opportunities for people to easily change Civic Societies.  Likewise each Civic Society also has the power to expel any of its member for whatever reason, similar as a church may expel a member for disobeying their rules.  Because individuals are free to leave anytime, the members are truly represented by their Civic Society, thus establishing legitimacy of authority from unanimous consent of the governed.

If there is any cancellation fee, then the contract must clearly describe the fee and its duration and have the individual sign it on the same page.  The contract may have multiple pages, however the fee and the length of the contract must be on the same page, with the signature of the individual on that page.  The cancellation fee must be for an explicit product or service given to the member when joining the Civic Society, and that cancellation fee cannot exceed the amount what is considered a (fair) market value.  In the case of cancellation, the individual has to pay the remaining of the fee at pro-rata according to the length of the contract.  If the length of the contract is not specified, or is considered excessive by a Judge or Jury, then the contract is invalid, and so is the cancellation fee.  Here are three examples for a Civic Society having a cancellation fee:

  1. Alice is a teenager and wishes to drive a car.  Civic Society X offers Alice the following deal: if she sign a car insurance contract car for 3 years, they will pay her driving lessons which are worth $600.  The cancellation fee is therefore $600 and the length of the contract is 3 years.  After 6 months, Alice decides to leave for Civic Society Y which offers better rates.  Therefore Alice has to pay $500 to Civic Society X for her driving lessons.
  2. Joe wants to install a security system to reduce his insurance cost for his newly built house, however he does not have the money upfront.  His Civic Society offers him free installation of a security system worth $800, provided he will remain a customer for 4 years and pay a monthly premium of $40.
  3. Bob's Business needs workers to fill in the demand for constructing buildings.  Bob is too busy to search for foreign workers and asks his Civic Society if they could undertake the immigration process.  The Civic Society finds foreigner willing to work at Village Libre.  Since those workers are unsure where they will live, the Civic Society promise them adequate housing, food and health care coverage in exchange for 50% of their salary given by Bob.  The contract stipulates each worker must work for Bob until they have paid the cancellation fee, which is transportation cost for bringing them to Village Libre.  The length of the contract is 4 years (200 weeks of work).  After two weeks, one of the worker, Eric, realizes he would be better as a self-employed contractor and decides to cancel his contract with the Civic Society.  He finds a customer willing to hire him, using his new customer as guarantor, goes to the bank to borrow money, refund 99% (198 weeks of 200 weeks) of the plane ticket, and starts his own construction business.  In another scenario, the Civic Society paid $10,000 for the airfare by finding the most possible expensive flight route.  Eric realizes the same flight could have cost between $1,000 and $1,500 and therefore offers to pay $1500 to the Civic Society to cancel his contract.  The Civic Society is contesting as they have a proof that they paid $10,000 for bringing Eric to Village Libre.  The truth is Bob and his Civic Society are colluding to give miserable salaries so the immigrants are unable to pay the cancellation fee.  The dispute escalates to court, and the Judge (or Jury) determines the fee was excessive.  As a punishment, the Civic Society gets nothing at all and Eric is free to join any other Civic Society.  Any form of slavery, which includes debt-bondage, is forbidden at Village Libre.  Consequently, any individual (or group of individuals) rigging a cancellation fee renders the contract null and void.  In some extreme cases of exploitation, all the assets of the exploiter must be sold and the proceeds given to the victims as restitution.

A Civic Society cannot contract with any individual under 13.  This is important to prevent Civic Societies to rip children and young adults, or asking a cancellation fee for "educating a child" or something like that.  The Civic Society is free to require an upfront payment in case a new member decides to prematurely quit, however this may not be the best strategy to attract new members.

Structure of a Civic Society

Each Civic Society is free to organize its capital structure and social constitution.  Some Civic Societies may require citizens to bring equal quantity of gold for the Restitution Reserve, while other Civic Societies will have a few members providing, and will collect a monthly (or yearly) fee from the other members.  Some Civic Societies may have in their constitution the requirement of unanimous consent to include a new members, others may require a majority vote, while others (probably large Civic Societies) will have an appointed officer making those decisions.  In the end, the individual has the final word regarding how his Civic Society operates, because he is free to leave if he is unhappy with a decision made by his Civic Society.

Dispute Resolution Organizations (DRO)

Society without rules and justice is no society at all.

The purpose of a Dispute Resolution Organization is having a neutral independent institution resolving conflicts between individuals and/or business.

A Dispute Resolution Organization is a group of individuals providing services such as mediation and arbitration to resolve disputes between individuals and/or businesses.  To maintain the "official" status, the DRO must have written contracts with a minimum of 3 official Civic Societies, thus creating a system of checks and balances between law making and interpretation of law.  If a DRO has a reputation of unfairness and/or arbitrary ruling, then no Civic Society will want to sponsor and/or be associated with such DRO, by fear of losing membership.  Likewise, a Civic Society creating unjust rules will have difficulty finding 3 DROs willing endorse their rules, because reputation of fairness what keeps DROs in business.  At any time, members may leave to another Civic Society if they believe a Civic Society has bad rules, or is associated with a corrupt DRO.

Each DRO must offer the option to have a court open to the public and available for video recording, unless both parties agree to keep their dispute private.  Also, all public rulings must be archived and made available on the DRO website.  This requirement is important to ensure no secret ruling took place, and give the public, including other DROs, to review and comment on previous rulings.  Competition will ensure that courts that make bad decisions will lose out over time to those with better judgment.

Entrepreneurship and innovation will produce new methods of resolving disputes.  For instance, minor commercial disputes may be resolved over video conferencing.  Some DROs will specialize in settling different type of disputes such as offering forensic science for resolving criminal cases, arbitration for construction disputes, and offering mediation to divorcing couples, or determining a fair amount to pay for child support.

Rules

A rule is a type of law dealing with the internal operation of an organization.  For instance, each Civic Society will have its own rules, including the duties and obligations of their members to pay certain fees, or give time in exchange for services, such as education and elderly caregiving.

Laws

These are the eternal, immutable laws of good and evil, to which the creator himself in all his dispensations conforms; and which he has enabled human reason to discover, so far as they are necessary for the conduct of human actions. Such among others are these principles: that we should live honestly, should hurt nobody, and should render every one its due... This is the foundation of what we call ethics, or natural law.
-- William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England (18th c.)

A law is valid and applies to all, including the leaders, judges and government officials.  No one is above the law.  Law is essentially discovered, not made.  Competing courts and competing jurisdictions stimulate intellectual competition in reaching the truth.  It is by precisely this method that we have achieved the staggering scientific progress of the past four centuries. A judicial system that incorporates the principle of competition and entrepreneur innovation is more likely than any other to succeed in discovering and effectively applying the principles of Natural Law. Natural law is no other than that rule of natural justice, which results either directly from men's natural rights, or from such acquisitions as they have a natural right to make or from such contracts as they have a natural right to enter into." [24]

Customary law is probably a more reliable method for "reducing" the Natural Law, because a spontaneously evolved and voluntarily maintained custom is more likely to promote mutual advantage than a decree devised and imposed by a small group in power.

The Purpose of Law

Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.
-- Frédéric Bastiat, The Law, 1850.

The purpose of law is to protect property rights; to permit scarce resources to be used peacefully, productively, and cooperatively as a means of action.  The fundamental social and ethical function of property rights is to prevent interpersonal conflict over scarce resources by allocating exclusive ownership of resources to specified individuals (owners).  To perform this function, property rights must be demonstrably just, objective, as well as visible (observable or discernible), because they cannot serve their function of preventing conflict unless they are acceptable as fair by those affected by the rules.

"Law imposed from the top — authoritarian law — typically requires the support of a powerful minority; law developed from the bottom up — customary law — requires widespread acceptance."
-- Bruce Benson, The Enterprise of Law.

Customary law is recognized, not because it is backed by the power of some strong individual or institution, but because each individual recognizes the benefits of behaving in accordance with other individuals' expectations, given that others also behave as he expects. Reciprocities are the basic source both of the recognition of duty to obey law and of law enforcement in a customary law system.  Good rules that facilitate interaction tend to be selected over time, while bad decisions are ignored.

To appeal to a greater customer base, DROs will have a tendency toward the unification of property and contract law, and the harmonization of the rules of procedure, evidence, and conflict resolution.

Justice

Justice is a concept involving the fair, moral, and impartial treatment of all persons.

The idea of justice refers always to social cooperation.
-- Ludwig von Mises, Human Action.

The science of justice - is the science of all human rights; of all a man's rights of person and property; of all his rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
-- Lysander Spooner, Natural Law, or the Science of Justice, 1882.

There is a natural incentive for competing courts in a free society to search for justice and to strive to adopt it, so as to cater to a justice­seeking consumer base.  Justice is primarily restorative, with restitution going to the victims rather than to a government; enforcement operated via a system of sureties and pledges, the ultimately recalcitrant being excluded from society and its protections.  To ensure a minimum restitution, each Civic Society must keep at all times the minimum quantity of gold as Restitution Reserve in case one of their member is unable to make reparation to the victim(s).  Under this system, the victims of a crime are always paid, immediately.  There would also be incentives for people to behave responsibly. Just as reckless drivers pay higher premiums for car insurance, so too would repeat offenders be charged higher premiums for their contract with Civic Societies.

Fair Trial

The right of a "fair trial" is an essential right recognized in nearly all countries, however the question remains: What is a fair trial?  Who decides what is fair?  What about a speedy trial?  Does a "speedy trial" means having to wait several years?  Unfortunately, most Constitutions do not define "fair" or "speedy", and worse, have no provisions when those clauses are not respected.  In many countries, politicians and bureaucrats violating laws continue to thrive with impunity.  One of the best example is the respect of the Magna Carta.

The Magna Carta constitutionally installed Trial by Jury for all causes (lawsuits), civil, criminal and fiscal, "in perpetuity" and "for ever," (see Preamble and Article 63 of Magna Carta of the 15th day of June, 1215). This was explicitly for the protection of the individual from arbitrary (i.e. antidemocratic; tyrannical) government. All persons thus persecuted by government, are entitled to elect Trial by Jury and if acquitted, are due Amnesty and Restitution.  Today people are sent to prison without any option for a trial by jury.

What is fair?

For sure, if the accused offender is found guilty, the "punishment" should be a restitution in the form of a fine or indemnity to be paid to the plaintiff, unless the plaintiff prefers imprisonment in the case of a violent crime.  Unfortunately, in most countries today, the accused goes to prison and the victim receives nothing.  To add insult to the injury, the victim is forced to pay taxes to keep the offender in prison.

Fairness also means compensation to an innocent wrongly accused or imprisoned.  In such case, the DRO who made the bad decision should pay compensation for the time spent in prison and emotional damages caused by their error.  A judge who is in doubt must refuse to judge.  Proof beyond reasonable doubt has a different meaning in a society where Judges are accountable and a Judge may lose his job and/or terminate his career for making bad decisions.

Equally, if the accused is found innocent, he should receive compensation for his stress, energy, time and money spent to defend himself.  The compensation amount shall be determined at the discretion of the judge, however judges making poor decisions would lose customers, as nobody want to waste his time in court.  Offering compensation to the innocent raises the legitimacy of the court, because if one refuses going to court to defend himself despite receiving compensation if found innocent, implies some guilt.

At Village Libre, each Civic Society must have a written contracts with a minimum of 3 official Dispute Resolution Organizations.  This way, a Citizen who is a member of a Civic Society cannot deny the jurisdiction of a DRO.  If two individuals who are members of the same Civic Society have a dispute, then they have a minimum of 3 choices, and they may also pick another DRO by mutual agreement.  If a dispute occurs between members of different Civic Societies, there is exist a network of contracts between the two Civic Societies.  If the individuals are unable to agree on a DRO, then the Civic Societies will pick a neutral DRO to resolve the dispute of their members.  If the Civic Societies are unable to agree on a DRO, then a random DRO will be selected.  Clearly, the individuals have an incentive to agree on a DRO rather than having one assigned randomly  (for more details, watch the video Conflict Resolution in a Free Society)

If a dispute occurs between a Civic Society and an individual, the individual is free to pick any official DRO to resolve the dispute. This prevents collusion between a Civic Society picking 3 of their friends as DROs, and then forcing individuals to abide by the decisions of those DROs.

Confrontation Clause

The accused has the absolute right to have a face-to-face confrontation with witnesses who are offering testimonial evidence against him in the form of cross-examination during a trial.  This right applies to all causes, civil, criminal and fiscal lawsuits.

Right to Counsel of Choice

Every individual has the right to a counsel of his choice to prepare his defense.  By choice, it means anybody the defendant deem best for his defense, including a friend acting as an agent.  In many countries, the word "choice" is meaningless, because the "choice" must be a lawyer member of a legal association recognized only by the Government.  If a dispute occurs between the citizen and the Government, then the lawyer must be loyal to the legal association which is under the direct control of the Government.  Any lawyer really helping his customer is facing the threat of being barred from the legal association, which implies a complete loss of career.

Trial by Jury

Every individual has an absolute right to jury trials for all causes, civil, criminal and fiscal lawsuits.

If the accused prefers a jury to a judge, he has the absolute right to be tried before a jury of citizen.  The jury not only has the authority to rule on the facts of the case, but also on the legitimacy of the law under which the case is tried, and which allow juries to refuse to convict if they regard the law they are asked to convict under as illegitimate or unfair.  The "judge" is there to conduct the proceedings in an orderly fashion and maintain the safety of all parties involved.  Without this absolute right to have a trial by jury, there is no real system of checks and balances, and consequently no justice at all.

An unjust law is no law at all.
-- St. Augustine.

Our history is filled with crimes against humanity, built-in to the legal system, sanctioned and enforced by the State.  For instance, the Fugitive Slave Clause is the name given to a provision in Article Four of the United States Constitution, Section 2, Clause 3, that requires that slaves that escaped to another state be returned to the owner in the state from which they escaped.  Six years later, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 created the mechanism for recovering a fugitive slave, overruled any state laws giving sanctuary, made it a federal crime to assist an escaped slave, and allowed slave-catchers into every U.S. state and territory.  The law made it a crime to assist a fugitive or a slave in escaping, with prison and a fine for helping a fugitive but only a fine for helping a slave. The Act made every escaped slave a fugitive for life (unless manumitted by the owner), who could be recaptured at any time anywhere within the territory of the United States, along with any children subsequently born of enslaved mothers. Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act in February 1793 and this was signed into law by the first US president, George Washington, which had himself over 300 slaves.  The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 made any Federal marshal or other official who did not arrest an alleged runaway slave liable to a fine of $1,000 (in 1850, the U.S was on a gold standard, and $1,000 was the equivalent of 50 ounces of gold, which is worth nearly $90,000 USD in todays' money).  In addition, any person aiding a runaway slave by providing food or shelter was subject to six months' imprisonment and a $1,000 fine.  Law-enforcement officials everywhere now had a duty to arrest anyone suspected of being a runaway slave on no more evidence than a claimant's sworn testimony of ownership.  Officers capturing a fugitive slave were entitled to a fee (bonus) for their work.  States were compelled to enforce the federal law, including assistance in the arrest and return of fugitives, including providing jails and courts.  Ordinary citizens of free states could be summoned into a posse and be required to assist in the capture and/or custody and/or transportation of the alleged escaped slave.  The law was so rigorously pro-slavery as to prohibit the admission of the testimony of a person accused of being an escaped slave into evidence at the judicial hearing to determine the status of the accused escaped slave. Thus, if a freedman were claimed to be an escaped slave under the Fugitive Slave Law he could not resist his return to slavery by truthfully telling his own actual history.  Since any suspected slave was not eligible for a trial this led to many free blacks being conscripted into slavery as they had no rights in court and could not defend themselves against accusations.  There were numerous instances in which people who were legally free and had never been slaves were captured and brought south to be sold into slavery.  Human trafficking and the slave-catching industry was growing.  In 1854, the Wisconsin Supreme Court became the only state high court to declare the Fugitive Slave Act unconstitutional, however the Supreme Court of the United States held that state courts cannot issue rulings that contradict the decisions of federal courts, overturning a decision by the Supreme Court of Wisconsin.  Several U.S. states passed "personal liberty laws" designed to protect free blacks, freedmen, and fugitive slaves, however the U.S. Supreme Court determined that personal liberty laws were unconstitutional. The Court held that the laws interfered with the Fugitive Slave Act.  Slavery was well entrenched, and the laws of the Federal Government were not only endorsing the slave industry, but subsidizing it with taxpayer's money.  Those without slave were also economically punished with unfair competition, because they had no access to free labor, this giving an incentive for everyone to own slaves and consequently perpetuating the vicious cycle of slavery.

Jury nullification took effect as local juries acquitted citizens indicted for helping fugitive slaves, thus ignoring the instructions on the law given by the trial judge.  In response judges began questioning jurors to find out if they were prejudiced against slavery, dismissing any who were.  Nevertheless, juries simply refused to convict fellow citizens who had been indicted under the Federal law, because jurors felt the laws to be unjust, thus greatly weakening the slave laws.  Secretary of State Daniel Webster was a key supporter of the [slave] law as he wanted high profile convictions, however jury nullifications ruined his presidential aspirations for the 1852 election.  Still, the slaves had no rights; never mind having a trial by jury regarding their freedom.  In 1857, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that people of African descent brought into the United States and held as slaves (or their descendants, whether or not they were slaves) were property, incapable of becoming citizens, not protected by the Constitution, and consequently have no standing to sue in Court.  Furthermore, the Court ruled that slaves, as chattels or private property, could not be taken away from their owners without due process.

The Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal", however the interpretation of the law by the Supreme Court was clear: some were more equals than others.  A "more perfect union" assuredly did not include "the blessings of liberty" for the slaves who held their inhuman status in the nation, and their lot was cast upon their offspring into perpetuity.

The Greeks held the first democracy, however slaves were not allowed to vote, never mind having a fair trial to protect themselves against ongoing theft: slavery.  Greeks spoke of the necessities of life as "cattle and slaves".  The census of Demetrius Phalereus in ca. 317 BC gave 21,000 citizens, 10,000 metics (resident aliens required to have a citizen to sponsor them), and 400,000 slaves.  Perhaps there were more slaves, as there was a tax for owning slaves, and some slaves many not have been counted to avoid the tax.  Records show that when the philosopher Plato died he left five domestic slaves in his will. His pupil Aristotle left fourteen.  For Aristotle the underlying principle of democracy is freedom, since only in a democracy the citizens can have a share in freedom.

History shows that the rhetoric of liberty and the institution of slavery may go hand in hand.  If history may be used as a guide, and we truly wish to protect individual liberty, the institution of a trial by jury of our peer must be rooted in our culture. Slave laws would be unenforceable if every individual (which includes slaves by the way) had the absolute right to have a trial by jury. 

Liberty is at risk as long as the same organization making the laws has the power to interpret those laws and enforcing them.

If democracy is the right of the people to govern themselves, then the same people should also have the final word on the interpretation of their laws.  The jury is our final check, the people's last safeguard against unjust laws and tyranny.

One may argue that slavery is long gone, and now things are different.  Not quite!  Slavery changed its form.  Exploitation does not require chains and balls.  Modern slavery is accomplished by taking money directly from the worker's paycheck, or withdrawing funds from his bank account, or the equivalent by leaving the money in the bank account, however making the that money worthless: it is called inflation.

, or by designing an economic system where the individual is pushed to sell his labor to an organizations because regulations makes it too difficult for him to open his own business.  A more subtle and less conspicuous form of slavery can be found in situations where unscrupulous employers take advantage of unfortunate individuals in poor economic circumstances unable to afford the licensing fees to start their own business.  If there were no requirements for expensive permits and licenses, those poor individuals would have the option to fire their boss.  Again, worker abuse is far more frequent in countries with a lot of red tape, compared to countries where it is easy to open a business.

Slavery may be officially illegal, however the new masters are banks and big corporations controlling the government and making laws to protect their interests at the expense of the rest of the population. Large corporations spend billions in lobbying to protect their market by crippling competition.  Legislators make laws and regulations as a barrier of entry, thus making it very difficult for an individual to open his business.  As a result, the individual has less choice and often end up working for a large corporation because he was unable to comply with all the red tape.  It is no coincidence the poorest countries have the most laws and red tape.  Red tape includes spending time searching for the rules and regulations necessary for opening a business, filling out of paperwork, spending money to hire professionals for advice, getting certification requirements, obtaining of licenses, waiting for multiple people or a committee to approve a decision, mandatory auditing, inspection, investigation, reporting, and various low-level rules that make conducting one's affairs slower, more difficult, or both.  Large organization LOVE red tape, because they have already established themselves in the market, and red tape is their only way to block new businesses operating more efficiently.  For instance, if red tape may delay a competitor by several months or years, then those regulations benefit the businesses already ready established.  In fact, the established businesses would not mind delaying new entrants forever, than facing competition.  This is why there are so many monopolies, where businesses court the government for special privileges of no competition at all, such as selling electricity (alcohol, gambling or distributing mail).  Red tape also incurs an opportunity cost to the new business, because often the new startup borrowed money and must pay interest on its loan while waiting for the paperwork to arrive.  When the paperwork is ready, the startup may have missed the market because the big corporation captured the market.  Large corporations are established in sales and marketing, and consequently are capable to sell an inferior quality product far better than an unknown startup.  Large corporations also have contacts and often relationships with bureaucrats and politicians, so they may use bribes or legislation as a tool for preventing a competitor to obtain a license and/or the required paperwork for starting a business.  Large corporations do not mind spending money on bribes because they can afford them.  The larger the bribe, the better because there is less competition for them.

Despite bad policies and regulations which are the source of worker abuse, the greatest form of slavery comes from banks forcing individuals to use their fiat money.  There is nothing as powerful as an Elite controlling the money supply.  The privilege of creating money gives an Elite a tool to steal the asset of an entire nation by inflating the money supply.

Although chattel slavery may be defined as the total control of one person by another for the purpose of economic exploitation, we must also include in our definition of partial slavery the notion of partial control, that is the non-ownership of one's person and labor.  For instance, forced marriage is a form of slavery compelling a woman into involuntary servitude.  Likewise, a pimp forcing a woman into prostitution is also engaging in a form of modern slavery, despite the woman being physically free however intimidated to act in a way she would not otherwise.  Contemporary slavery also include debt bondage, forced labor, child soldiers, child pornography, human trafficking and sex trafficking.

Deny them of their education = human trafficking.

It is involuntary servitude. A slave must work under a whip, real or figurative, wielded by other persons, his owners, with no say in how (or even if) his labors are compensated. His is a one-way contract he cannot opt out of. A slave is tied to his master (and to the land where he labors). He cannot simply quit if he doesn’t like it. Moreover, a slave can be bought and sold like any other commodity.

 According to libertarian social ethics, contracts should be voluntary and not coerced.

In this Constitution, we define slavery as ongoing theft.  It is not just stealing someone's labor; it is the theft of an entire life  Whatever the victim has his money stolen

 Slavery is illegal everywhere and so requires corruption and crime to continue. 

The power of the slave owner is always subject to the power of the state; slavery can only continue to exist if governments permit it to, and some writers claim that government corruption is a leading cause of the persistence of slavery.

Fiat money prevent people to save, keeping them in perpetual debt.

 

However, there are some crucial differences between historical and modern forms of slavery:

 

There are more slaves than ever before, but they are a smaller proportion of the human race

For instance, if an individual is taking half of the income of another person, then the

 reducing the middle class to work harder and harder, having just enough money to make ends meet.  Prices keep going up and up, and both parents have to work just to pay for essential things such as housing, food and transportation.

  The under class is receiving wages that barely keep them alive.

people working

Article 4 of the UDHR states that ‘No one shall be held in slavery or servitude: slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms’.

 slaves. leaving

Slavery is the total control of one person by another for the purpose of economic exploitation. It is not just stealing someone's labor; it is the theft of an entire life. Having just enough money to get by, receiving wages that barely keep you alive, may be called wage slavery, but it is not slavery. Sharecroppers have a hard life, but they are not slaves. Child labor is terrible, but it is not necessarily slavery.

  Inflation is a tax, however the proceed of this tax goes to banks.

The bulk of slavery is by inflating the money supply, which causes overall prices to rise, thus confiscating the fruit.  Requires more and more productivity just to maintain the same lifestyle.

Mentality of creating cartels, and those who form the cartel benefit from it.  This is why there is so much support from members of the cartel. Putting an individual in prison for doing manicures without a license sounds fair to those who have a license because they do not want competition.  Besides, their license is increasing value, making it appear like it is a good "investment".  Taxi license in New York costing $1 Million.

 depriving

we have bankster elites dictating to governments what they should do with the aim of centralizing more power into their hands.   The richest individuals, such as Bill Gates and Warren Buffet, with their tax-free foundations are advocating more taxes.

The banking elite.  Today, business pay more in interest payment to banks than they pay dividends to their shareholders.  Everyone has debts.  In a typical mortgage, the bank will collect more interest payments than the people who built the house and provided the raw materials.  All of this for a simple signature.

When you are in a business of loaning money, you want people to come to you to borrow money.  The more desperate they are for money, the more you may charge interest. Banks do not wish a rich middle class with a lot of savings because this means they cannot lend money to them.  Taxation is a great way to transfer money from the middle class to the banking elite.  If taxation was helping the poor and the middle class, we would see the middle class growing, which by definition a reduction of the number of people living in poverty.  On the contrary, the middle class is disappearing and rich are getting richer.  The fortune of the billionaires has increased faster than ever before, and the concentration of wealth is in the hands of fewer and fewer individuals.

Enslaving themselves with debt bondage.  Third world countries suffer a similar fate, in debt and controlled by banks who loaned the money and collecting perpetual interests.  Debt "forgiveness" is not an act of charity, but only when the country is completely incapable of operating, which would make the indebted country incapable to pay interests anymore.

Taxation benefits the banks, because people without money have to go to the banks to borrow, enslaving themselves.

  No fiat money would come to existence without the use of force

If taxes would help the middle class  and/or the middle class, one would see the middle class growing, but it is not the case.  Taxes were designed by the elite to soak the extra money from the middle class.  The same can be said regarding countries with their "trade agreements", to constantly keep a large part of the World poor, at the service of the rich countries.  Economic warfare!

Debt so children are enslaved forever to the banking elite.

raid undocumented immigrants

Another form of slavery is forcing individuals to use fiat money.  In a free society, individuals should be free to use the currency they wish to conduct business, not be forced. Banks creating fiat money are the biggest threat for liberty, not only because they are stealing purchasing power from the population, but they can purchase any politician and bureaucrat, and therefore control the government.  Fiat money also creates the boom-bust cycle.  During the boom banks keep the profits and during the bust (recession), the taxpayers must bail them out.

Why both parents have to work long hours despite increase in productivity with computers and technology? Why prices keep rising, from food to energy, forcing individuals to work longer hours just to maintain the same lifestyle?  Why does it takes decades to pay a typical mortgage to purchase a house which takes only a few months to build?  Why almost everyone must go to the bank to borrow money for necessities of life such as a house?  Sure, the mortgage contract may be valid, however the monetary system of fiat money makes it impossible to save, and therefore the average citizen must constantly go to the bank and borrow money with interests.  Inflation is theft, however very few understand what inflation is: the increase of the money supply.  In other words, inflation is no different than if you were to print money, except the banks can do it, with the blessing of the Central Bank.

The income gap between rich and poor keeps widening.  While millions of individuals lost their jobs, assets and homes during the economic crisis of 2007-2010, the total wealth of billionaires and millionaires in the U.S. grew 12 percent in year 2010, hitting $1.53 trillion.  The total wealth of billionaires grew even faster.  Contrast this with billions of individuals living on less than $3 per day, drinking polluted water and dying of starvation.

The prisons are full of people who have done nothing wrong, except be in possession of a "controlled substance" that the federal government, at least, has no authority under the Constitution to "control."  People dying of cancer or AIDS have been arrested and jailed just for growing and smoking marijuana, the only thing that enables them to eat, take their medication, and stay alive.

What does slavery, regulations and fiat money have anything to do with a trial by jury?  The answer is simple: those "laws" are unjust!

The institution of a Trial by Jury is vital for the preservation of freedom, and consequently a solution to prevent judicial tyranny.  For instance, it would be very difficult for an individual to convince a jury to jail another individual for doing a manicure without a license, or serving food without a permit.  Unfortunately, the current system of judges is so corrupt that jailing people for victimless crimes is routine work.  Allowing judges to have the final decision on laws is very dangerous, considering judges are cherry picked by politicians, and are paid to interpret the laws written by politicians.  Who control the politicians are not the voters, but the Elite owning the big banks and large corporations.  Politicians who do not go along with the Elite are simply discarded and replaced with a new obedient puppet.  The politicians who truly want to help their fellow citizens have a difficult time being elected, and those who managed to get elected soon meet who is the real boss.

  

 Since judges are cherry picked by politicians, there is a high risk of corruption among judges.  The judges know they must remain loyal to the politicians otherwise they are kicked out.

  In a free world where judges would be selected on merit rather than their political affiliations and loyalty for the state, judicial tyranny would not

Judicial tyranny For instance, it would be very difficult to

 and it would be very difficult to have a jury to jail someone opening a business without the "license" which is nothing than a tax protecting large corporations.  However with judges paid to interpret the laws written by the politicians, their hands are tied.

The powers of juries not only place a curb on the powers of legislators and judges, but also imply an imputation on their integrity, impartiality and trustworthiness. These are the reasons why legislators and judges have harbored the most intense hatred for juries, and, so fast as they could do it without alerting the People to the loss of their liberties, have now destroyed juries’ power to judge on justice issues, and with it the Trial by Jury.

Any Judge ruling on a case by denying a Trial by Jury is committing the highest treason on the land.  He must be immediately barred from working for any DRO for the rest of his life.  His name and picture must be permanently visible on the Hall of Shame on the Government Website so generations may learn the story and the consequences of treason.  Any DRO hiring such an individual immediately looses its status of "official" Dispute Resolution Organization for a full year.  Ignorance of the law is no excuse for a Judge or a DRO!

A Judge does not have to accept a jury in his court room, however cannot refuse the transfer of the court case to another court with a jury.  It is likely some courts will specialize in Trial by Jury where all the rooms have seats for the jury, and the "judge" is there to conduct the proceedings in an orderly fashion and maintain the safety of all parties involved.

Jury Selection (5 to 12 Jurors)

Every Citizen in good standing is welcome to volunteer as a Juror.  To volunteer as a Juror, the citizen login to his account on the Government Website and registers himself as a juror and enters his desired hourly fee, up to one gram of gold per hour.  To maintain privacy, each volunteer is assigned a random number (GUID) which is used in the future when selecting a Jury.  The Government Website displays a list of all the GUIDs and the hourly fees, sorted from smallest to largest.  The median value is the official hourly rate paid to jurors.

When a jury is required, the DRO requests from the Government Website a list of randomly selected jurors, called the Jury List.  The Jury List contains twice the number of Jurors, sorted from the lowest to the highest hourly rate.  Each Juror is contacted to confirm if he is still available and willing to be a member of the Jury for the case.  If he agrees, he is a member of a jury, otherwise another Juror is randomly picked and added to the list of added to the Jury List.  Although all jurors are paid equally, the priority goes to those who requested the lowest pay.  This way, a juror writing zero as his hourly fee will earn the same as a juror writing 1 gram of gold, however the juror with the cheaper fee will always be asked first to participate to the jury.  The desire to participate to the jury will create a competition among jurors to lower their hourly fee, which will lower the median value of the jury pool which represents the official hourly fee per juror.

Jury of Your Peers (equals)

The principle of a Common Law Jury or Jury of your Peers was first established on June 15, 1215 at Runnymede, England when King John signed the Magna Carta. A jury of your peers means anyone in your peer group. Back when this was created it meant that if you were a farmer your jury would be filled with farmers. If you were a peasant, your jury would be full of peasants.

In this Constitution, a jury of your peers means a jury of Citizens.  One may suggest having a of Citizens from your own Civic Society, however if a Civic Society is going rogue, then it would be like having a gangster asking to have a jury from his gang.  Given the fact that everyone may become a Citizen, including those without any documents, a Jury of Citizens who volunteered and passed a test regarding their understanding of justice is our best bet to safeguard liberty.  On the other hand, if the individual asking for a Jury is found guilty, then his Civic Society will have to pay restitution, and he will have to answer to the other members of his Civic Society for his action.  In short, he will be judged by his peer for his actions, and may be expelled by the Civic Society, or have to pay a higher premium to refund the restitution fee paid by his Civic Society.

Any citizen having a conflict of interest in the case must be excluded.  For instance, if the Mayor is accusing an individual, then all government employees and government contractors must be excluded as members of the jury, because they indirectly receive money from the Government.  As a safety measure against tyranny, the Government is forbidden to use any court or any DRO against citizens.  If the government has been victim of a crime, such as someone burning a government building, then the Mayor himself must appear, in flesh and blood, in court to seek restitution.  The Mayor may seek advise from anyone he/she wishes, however cannot delegate his authority to someone else.  This is important to prevent the Government to hire individuals, let's call them tax collectors, which use the courts for the purpose of legally extorting money from the population.

Who pays the jury?

One cannot do justice by causing injustice to someone else.

At Village Libre, all jurors must have voluntary agreed to participate to a Jury and must be paid.  Again, one cannot do justice by causing injustice to someone else, such as forcing an individual to participate to "jury duty" and/or not paying him according to his consent.

Both parties must chip-in for the jury fees, and the innocent party receive a refund at pro-rata according to the jury verdict.  For instance, if the selected a jury has 9 individuals, and 6 declared the defendant innocent, then the accused party will have to pay 6/9 (66.7%) of the jury fees, while defendant (despite being declared innocent) will still have to pay 3/9 of the jury fees.

Therefore, if someone wishes to bring another individual to court, he must weight the possibility of a trial by jury, and bear the entire cost of the jury (plus court fees) if the jury unanimously declares that the accused is innocent.

Jury Qualification

Each juror must pass a test prior volunteering.  Again, the questions and answers are not tricky as they are available on the Government Website.  The goal is to have a quality jury where each juror has basic understanding of property, rights, liberty and law.  Above all, the juror must know what Jury Nullification means.

The qualification should be mostly done before listing the individuals on the website of the jury pool.  The judge is forbidden to ask the juror to obey to him.

When an individual requests a trial by jury, he actually pays for a quality service, rather than a random sample of the population, from which some may be angered to be forced participate to the "jury duty", or having no interest in delivering justice, or mentally incapable to comprehend abstract concepts such freedom, rights and law.  In most countries, jurors are threaten with imprisonment for refusing participating to jury duty.  As a result, the verdict may not be fair, as the jurors may wish to rush the case to return to their normal life and business.

Jury Verdict

A person is presumed innocent until proven guilty

The expression, "beyond a reasonable doubt", requires clarification for the benefit of the jury.  The correct explanation of the requisite burden of proof is essential to ensure a fair criminal trial:

Based on the maxim that a man is presumed innocent until proven guilty and there must clear and convincing evidence for a conviction, the threshold of having 3 jurors declaring the accused is innocent is sufficient to reach a "not-guilty" verdict.  In a Jury of 12 jurors, 3 jurors means that 25% of the jurors believe the accused is innocent, which is enough to dismiss the proof beyond a reasonable doubt that the accused is guilty.

Jury Recycling

Once a Jury is form, the same jury may recycled for other cases.  Let's take a typical morning:

  1. The first case is a group of individuals seeking prison to a single mother because she refuses to pay an exorbitant late fee on a book borrowed by one of her child.   That group of individuals claims a total devotion in "serving" the public, promoting family values, and of course, helping the homeless, the poor and/or people in need.  This group is obviously not-for profit, however want the money for their self-proclaimed good cause.  To her defense, the woman reminds the group that the book was paid from her money taken by coercion, more specifically, collected via taxes, which by the way, are always increasing faster than the cost of living.  The woman explains she is working hard, and has difficulties to pay her bills and feed her children, and consequently she has little time to spend time them because of the long hours of work and commuting.  She insists her young children are not thieves, but they probably lost the book somewhere.  She says she is willing to replace the lost book with a new one, however cannot afford to pay the exorbitant fee which is more than 20 times the value of the book.
  2. The second case is a group of individuals seeking up to 6 years of prison to an individual who refuses to fill a form and sign it.  The defendant claims he has no desire to conduct business with this group of individuals, and forcing him to sign a contract against his will is an act of extortion.  Furthermore, the defendant claims the group has a long history of criminal activity, and financing such group would make him a partner-in-crime.  Besides, the supposed contract has thousand of pages, written by thousands of different individuals.  The defendant claims that nobody in the world has the capacity to understand the contract, and both parties agree that any violation of this contract is may result years of prison.
  3. The third case is a group of individuals seeking prison to a farmer who sold raw milk to his neighbors.  This group of individuals is unable to demonstrate any authority on the matter. The farmer brought his customers as witness to testify the raw milk tastes better and is healthier.
  4. The next case is a group of individual seeking prison to parents refusing vaccination to their child.  Autism.  This group seeking imprisonment is financed by the corporation selling those vaccines.
  5. People having sex and offering money.
  6. The next case is a group of individuals seeking prison to a man who purchased a bottle of wine. The group wish imprisonment because they want a monopoly on selling illegal products because they may make more profit, the same as drugs.
  7. The next case is a group of individuals seeking prison to a woman because she is doing the work of a man, such as giving health care.  Nobody complained about the quality of her work, however this group of self-appointed individuals claim they are protecting the public.  Nothing is elaborated on how the group is protecting the public, or from what, however the group claim we have to make a leap of faith in their good intentions..
  8. The next case is a group of individuals seeking imprisonment to a man who cured the back pain of his neighbor.  This self-anointed group claims the imprisonment is a good thing to protect the public, despite the man who no longer has back pain is there to testify he feels better. 
  9. The next case is a group of individual seeking castration to a young woman because they feel she is not desirable.  That group of individuals have no evidence whatsoever about the young woman being undesirable, except their notable history of racism.  To her defense, this young woman shows she is smarter than average by having good grades at school, good behavior, she loves children and would like to have a family some day, and it is unfair to her to be denied her right to have children by a group of racist claiming authority to castrate her.
  10. The next case is a man who is facing 50 years of jail for stealing 3 DVDs, where the total production cost is worth less than $1.
  11. The next case is a man who is facing 75 years of jail for video recording the misconduct of a police officer.
  12. A woman with a criminal case for owing $0.60 15 years ago.
  13. The next case is an individual seeking restitution from damages of a street gang.  This street gang has a long history of brutality, crime and corruption.  To their defense, the gang claims the damages are "collateral damages" and therefore not subject to restitution.  Besides, the gang claim "we are just doing our job".
  14. In the line of duty.
  15. The next case is a group of individuals seeking prison to an individual who refuses to join their gang.  This gang claims a monopoly of violence on their territory, and since that individual was born within the geographical area of what the gang defines as its territory, the individual therefore belongs to them.  To his defense, the individual claims he does not wish to join such gang, because he knows the gang will train to use deadly force and give him orders to kill innocent people.
  16. The next case is a group of individuals seeking the death penalty to a young man for cowardice.  The group claims the young man is a coward and refused to obey their order to kill innocent civilians.  This group claim having a contract with the young man.  On their supposed contract, the young man agreed to obey any order, and in case of refusal, he deserve whatever punishment the gang deem fair and just.  As a result, the gang is seeking an execution by firing squad to honor their practice of good use of weapons.  To his defense, the young man claims he never desired to join such a group, he was intimidated with imprisonment to sign such a contract, and the orders were against his conscience.
  17. The next case is a group of individual seeking the death penalty to a young woman for treason.  The young woman is a professional nurse who gave first aid to a wounded individual belonging to an "enemy gang".  Since the gang seeking the death penalty claims, despite any evidence, complete ownership of the young woman, and consequently they feel they have the right to execute her by firing squad for her crime of helping a member of the other gang.  To her defense, the young woman says forgot to ask the wounded young man which gang he belongs.  Besides, she claims she prefer to use ethics and focus on her professional calling to save lives than picking sides on which gang member to help.
  18. Ethiopians using Skype face up to 15 years of prison.

 

http://mises.org/daily/4456/The-Tyranny-of-the-Bench

Whatever the judge is professionally obliged to judge against good judgment, or is being intimidated by the State, or completely devoid of common sense is irrelevant.  What matters is that without a trial by jury, serious injustice is perpetuated.

Jury Waiver for Businesses

A contractual jury waiver is a contractual provision that expressly states that the parties to the contract waive their right to a jury if a dispute should arise between them.  If a dispute arises, one party could sue the other in court, but neither party would have the option to request a jury to determine the outcome.

The Jury Waiver is valid only for businesses-to-business. Two businesses may waive their right to have a trial by jury if they prefer a specific DRO to resolve their disputes.  In some cases, a contract may have very specific clauses and requires an expert arbitrator with very technical skills to resolve a dispute in a fair manner.  An example would be a manufacturer of smartphones ordering 1 million processors from a chipmaker.  The chip is leaking current causing the battery life to be shorter by 40%.  To make the problem worse, the smartphone company already spent $10 in advertising about their new smartphone, bragging about the long battery life.  Can the smartphone company cancel the contract?  If so, the company may have to delay the launch of their new smartphone which has huge opportunity costs.  If the contract cannot be cancelled, then what kind of compensation should be given to the smartphone company?  In such a dispute, having a jury of random citizens may not be the best solution, as the jurors have no technical expertise on the matter and their verdict may be unpredictable.

The goal of this Constitution is to protect the rights of everyone, including people vulnerable to legal predators.  If two businesses do not wish to have a trial by jury, then they must specify on their contract by writing the name of the DRO that will resolve any potential dispute.  The contract must include the name of both businesses, and be signed by three officers from each business, plus the signature of DRO officer acting as a witness.  The DRO may directly resolve the dispute, or outsource the dispute to an expert firm on the matter.

The requirement of three signatures is important for protecting individuals and small businesses from large predatory organizations requiring their customers to waive their rights to have a trial by jury, and later use the law to extort money from them.  Too many times in history people have been victim of large organizations using the law as a tool for legal plunder.  Requiring a single signature could easily lead to extortion, as an individual may be intimidated to waive his right to have a trial by jury, and later find himself in a debt bondage without any access to a fair trial by jury.  In many countries, the Social Security Number creates a "person" (or corporation) where the individual representing this person is now compelled to be a witness against himself, cannot remain silent and ordered to sign a contract (the tax return) against his wish to perpetually renew his bondage with the State.  Above all, the individual is denied access to have a trial by jury.  The Income Tax system is nothing more than modern slavery, where the individuals are denied their right to keep the fruit of their labor.  Chattel Slavery was also operating on the same concept as the Social Security Number, where the slaves where "signing a contract" in exchange for the benefit of their transportation and having a job.  Slavery would have never lasted if slaves had access to a trial by jury to challenge the validity of such "contract".  The Fugitive Slave Act of passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850 was eventually repelled 

. Contract and must specify an amount.  Again, this clause is to avoid an ambiguous "contract" to give half of one salary in exchange for "benefits" which are not enumerated in the "contract".  Must refer to this clause in the Constitution.  The Jury Waiver cannot be applied to any contract with a quasi-governmental organization, such as a Civic Society, Dispute Resolution Organization, Treasury, nor with any Government Person.

sunset provision

The requirement of two signatures is also insufficient, as a married couple could be considered a business, as it is currently defined as a "person" in many countries.  It would be too easy for a large organization to trick couples to sign a contract to waive their rights for a trial by jury, and later enforce their contracts through the legal system.

lifestyle, race, skin color, nationality, country of birth, status.  Even the individual with no paper who entered to Village Libre by trespassing has the right to have a fair trial, which includes a trial by jury.  This individual also has the right to use the court system to seek restitution if his property was aggressed or taken without his consent.

  At Village Libre, such deceits are unacceptable, and this is the reason every individual has an absolute, unalienable right to have a trial by jury.

Appeal of a Decision

If an individual believe the ruling was unfair, he has the option to pick another DRO for another trial.  When appealing a decision, the individual must bear the entire cost of the trial, and if given satisfaction, the other party will have to refund him the cost of trial.  This clause is important to prevent someone to appeal over and over again to drain the finance resources of the other party.  Eventually, what will happen is no DRO will want to hear the case.  If 3 DROs have ruled the same way, it is very likely the other DROs will not be interested in the case.

Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars

The Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars is composed of 12 randomly selected Liberty Scholars having the mission of resolving a single Constitutional Dispute.  This Jury has the duty to defend the Constitution, acting somewhat as a "Supreme Court" regarding the interpretation of the Constitution.

The Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars does not resolve disputes between individuals.  Only a Civic Society may request a Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars to determine if an individual committed an act of treason.  The Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars does not has the power of Jury Nullification regarding a Clause of the Constitution.

 

 such as determining if a Government Person committed an act of treason, or a Civic Society violated the an individual

 issuing Warnings of Treason to impeach Government Persons, or revoke the citizenship of individuals who are tempting

Only a Grand Jury of Liberty may issue a warning regarding an act of treason.

Only a Civic Society may initiate a request for a Grand Jury of Liberty.

 

The Veto Committee is somewhat the "Supreme Court", however deals only with as impeaching a Government Officer or revoking the citizenship of an individual who has committed a serious crime.  The Veto Committee does not interfere in resolving private disputes between individuals.

The Veto Committee is passive by nature, meaning it cannot open a case or resolve a dispute that does not exists.  Only a Civic Society may initiate a request for the Veto Committee to review.  For instance, if the Mayor is presumed to commit an act of Treason, then a case unless a Civic Society is initiating

The Veto Committee is also responsible of maintaining hardware and software for the Audit Database.

  1.  impeachment of a Government Officer  over the interpretation of This Constitution between a Civic Society and a Government Officer.
  2. the Judicial Branch, acting somewhat like a Supreme Court however strictly limited to resolve Constitutional Disputes.

 

Treason

Every Government Employees and Officers must take the oath to obey the Constitution, and if such a person violates the Constitution, he receives a Treason Warning.

Treason Warnings

A Treason Warning is issued to any individual committing an act of Treason.  Only a Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars may issue a Treason Warning.  As a rule of thumb, Citizens, Residents and Visitors are not subject to treason, unless proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt to have conspired with a Government Person, or incited a Government Person, to commit an act of treason.

The purpose of issuing a Treason Warning is preventing the impeachment or the revocation of citizenship on the first offence.  Everyone make mistakes, and sometimes an action which may appear insignificant may consists of an act of treason at Village Libre.  As a result, the first Treason Warning consists of only a fine, ranging from 100 hours to 1000 hours of the median salary.

 

  For instance, the Government is forbidden have a Central Bank or a national currency.  Any group of individuals courting the Mayor or lobbying the Village Council for a national currency (which is a monopoly on the money supply) are indeed committing an act of treason.

  may appear just

giving a to give a "second chance"

People may make mistakes, including Government Officers and Employees.  This is why the first mista

 if found guilty by the Veto Committee which consists of a Jury of 9 juror.  Each juror must write an article to justify his decision.

Three Strikes Rule = Impeachment

After three (3) warnings, the person who committed an act of Treason is impeached, that is removed from office and with the loss of citizenship.

High Treason

An individual committing an act of High Treason is immediately loses his citizenship and is banned citizenship for life.  His name, picture and description of the offence is permanently displayed on the Hall of Shame on the Government Website.

At Village Libre, only a Judge may commit an act of High Treason.  High Treason is done when an individual express the desire to have a trial by jury and the judge would deny the request and rule on the case.

 

Liberty Scholars

A Liberty Scholar is a title assigned to an individual who has learned and mastered the topic of individual liberty.  A Liberty Scholar is an individual of high intellectual caliber as well as a person of high morality and living with integrity.

A Liberty Scholar may volunteer to become a Juror in the event a Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars is necessary to resolve a Constitutional Dispute.

Faculty of Liberty Scholars

The purpose of the Faculty of Liberty Scholars is keeping the beacon of individual liberty for the people of Village Libre.  The duty of the Faculty is advancing the scholarship of individual liberty and determining the requirements necessary for an individual to quality as a Liberty Scholar. Likewise, the Faculty has the authority to remove the title of Liberty Scholar to an individual who committed fraud, or does not live according to the principles of liberty.

The Faculty of Liberty Scholars is composed of 15 Faculty Members.  Once an individual becomes a Faculty Member, he may stay until sane the rest of his life, or until

Although the Faculty of Liberty Scholars may be considered a Government Institution, the Faculty is does not receive any money from taxpayers.  The Faculty is allowed to receive donations only.  To preserve independence of though and prevent conflict of interests, no Faculty Member is allowed to work as government officers, employees or contractor.

Quasi-Government Organizations

A Quasi-Government Organization is a group of Citizens following very strict rules in exchange of having special privileges to perform limited governmental functions, such as granting citizenship to an individual, issuing a driver license, registering a title of land ownership, awarding a diploma recognized by the government, and/or operating a prison.  Those organizations do not hold any monopoly on their priveleges and are subject of competition of the market, as multiple of them may offer the same services.  Quasi-Government Organizations must be registered and listed on the Government Website, however they are privately owned, autonomous in their management, receive their funding solely from customers willing to purchase their services, and may go bankrupt if unable to attract and/or satisfy their customers.

Quasi-Government Organizations are the ultimate taxpayers.  Any Tax or Fee necessary to pay for Government Expenditures, which includes the weekly pay of Government Officers and the upkeep of Government Institutions, must come solely from Quasi-Government Organizations.  It is an act of treason for the Treasurer, or any other Government Person, to receive any funds directly from an individual or business.

We already covered two Quasi-Government Organizations: Civic Societies and Dispute Resolution Organizations.  Those organizations represent the backbone of of the social structure and justice system at Village Libre.  Other Quasi-Government Organizations include Prison Operators, Land Registrars, Work-for-Food Coordinators and Accredited Organizations.

There are four other Quasi-Government Organizations: Prison Operators, Land Registrars, Work-for-Food Coordinators and Accredited Organizations.

In Good Standing

A Quasi-Government Organization must follow very strict tules to remain In Good Standing.  As long as the organization follows the necessary rules, it has the privilege to perform its governmental functions.

For instance, all Quasi-Government Organization must at all times maintain a minimum of three (3) contract contracts with Dispute Resolution Organizations willing to settle their disputes.  For a Dispute Resolution Organization to remain In Good Standing, it must have three contracts with Civic Societies willing to accept them to settle their disputes.  Also, those organizations must have a minimum number of Citizens willing to endorse the organization and take responsibility for the actions of their members.

Certain types of organizations must pay a periodic fee to remain In Good Standing.  For instance, the Land Registrar must pay a yearly fee to the Chief Land Registrar to have access to modify the Land Registry database.

Restitution Reserve

One characteristic of all Quasi-Government Organizations is the requirement to maintain a minimum Restitution Reserve in order to remain In Good Standing.  This requirement is essential to ensure all Quasi-Government Organizations are accountable and responsible for their actions.  For instance, a Civic Society or Accredited Organization has the privilege to grant a Driver License, however if the driver causes an accident, then the organization is responsible of paying for the damages if the driver is unable to cover the costs.  Likewise, a Civic Society or an Accredited Organization may sponsor a Visitor, however if the Visitor comits a crime, then the organization will have to pay compensation to the victim(s).

To ensure the Restitution Reserve remains meaningful over centuries, its value is expressed in Man-Hours.

Quasi-Government Organization Minimum Restitution Reserve in Man-Hours Minimum Number of Citizens
Civic Society 10,000 20
Prison Operator 50,000 10
Others 5,000 5

For instance, if the average worker earns $10 per hour, then each Civic Society must keep a minimum Restitution Reserve having a Bitcoin value equivalent to $100,000.

Since the Restitution Reserve is stored in Bitcoins, each Quasi-Government Organization must publish on the Government Website the Bitcoin address containing the Restitution Reserve.  This way, the public may see how much Resitution Reserve each organization has.

Outsourcing the Restitution Reserve

Since the amount of 10,000 Man-Hours is a larage amount and we want a low barrier of entry for Citizens to establish their own Civic Societies, the organization may contract (outsource) up to 95% of its Restitution Reserve from another Quasi-Government Organization willing to take responsibility.

For instance, a Civic Society may own only 5% of its Restitution Reserve (500 Man-Hours) and have a Prison Operator vouching the remaining (9,500 Man-Hours).  In such a case, the Government Website would display two Bitcoin addresses: the Civic Society having Bitcoins worth more than 500 Man-Hours, and the Bitcoin Address of the Prison Operator vouching for the Civic Society.  This way, the public may verify if the sum meets the minimum required Restitution Reserve.

Joint Liability Restitution Reserve

Another solution to lower the barier of entry to establish a Quasi-Government Organization is having Citizens pledging their own credit, up to  500 Man-Hours, as collateral for the Restitution Reserve.  For instance, a group of 20 individuals may establish their Civic Society by having 500 Man-Hours worth of Bitcoins, and each pledging 500 Man-Hours, resulting in a total Restitution Reserve worth 10,500 Man-Hours.

A Citizen may pledge a maximum of 500 Man-Hours, so if he wishes to

Officers pay double

Voting on the Restitution Reserve

Every citizen has the right to vote at any time on the amount of gold in the restitution reserve, using his online account.  The amount

The amounts are averaged for each Civic Society, and the average Restitution Reserve for each Protection count of the Citizen. Each Civic Society there

Representative Democracy.  This extra step is to make all Civic Societies equal, thus preventing a Civic Society with a lot of citizens to vote high a very Restitution Reserve thus preventing small Civic Societies from raising the necessary gold for the Restitution Reserve.

Unlocking the Restitution Reserve

Two Dispute Resolution Organizations the Quasi-Government Organizations has contracted with.

Insufficient Restitution Reserve

 

 

Prison Operators

A Prison Operator is an Accredited Organization specializing in keeping criminals physically confined for the purpose of preventing them from committing more crimes, or as a punishment for committing crimes.

At Village Libre, all prisons are privately operated by Accredited Organizations meeting the following criterias:

Bill of Rights for Prisoners

The Bill of Rights for Prisoners are safeguards to prevent abuse by Prison Operators.  Since all prisons are privately operated, there is always a risk of a Prison Operator abusing its privilege.  Since prisoners are not free to leave the prison, they have a Bill of Rights to protect them against abuse such as sexual, psychological, physical, forced labor, neglect and overcrowding.

Bill of Rights for Prisoners

  1. The Prisoner has the right to choose any Prison Operator (in good standing), negotiate and sign a contract with them.  Of course the Prison Operator has the duty to keep the prisoner from escaping, however the Prisoner may negotiate services, such as tools for work, the size of room, food plan, type of Internet connection, access to facilities such as a gym, pool, cinema, library, and education.  Competition among Prison Operators to "attract customers" will ensure the prisons are safe, the facilities (such as medical services) are adequate, and the incarceration fees are fair.
  2. Since the Prisoner has the right to choose his prison, he also has the responsibility to pay the entire cost of his incarceration.  Prisoners may have to sell their assets or borrow money, however it is likely Prisoners will voluntary seek work increase their quality of life while in prison.  Prison Operators will have a financial incentive to accommodate and encourage prisoners to work within the prison facility.  The more a prisoner earns, the more services he may purchase from the Prison Operator.  If a prisoner has no skills, the Prison Operator has a financial incentive to train him and find him work so he may purchase additional services from the prison facility.
  3. If the Prisoner is unwilling to pay the incarceration cost, then the responsibility falls under the Civic Society sponsoring him at the moment the crime was committed.  Civic Societies are responsible to pay restitution for damages caused by their members if unable or unwilling to pay.  If the Civic Society pays for the incarceration costs, then the Civic Society has the right to choose any Prison Operator in good standing.  If the Civic Society is unable to pay because it depleted its Restitution Reserve, then the Civic Society of the victim(s) will pay and decide.  After all, each Civic Society has the duty to protect its members, and if there is a dangerous criminal loose, the remaining Civic Societies will have an incentive to keep the criminal in prison to reassure their members.
  4. The Prisoner has the right to change prison, provided he pays the relocation costs.
  5. Prisoner has the right to keep his extra income.  Unless specified in the incarceration contract, the extra income belongs to the Prisoner.  There may instances, where the Prisoner may have a contract sharing his income with the Prison Operator.  An example would be the prison facility is offering a store for prisoners to sell their items to the public.  In such a case, the prison facility may request a percentage of the sales, like shopping malls do with their stores.
  6. In the event the Prisoner has been beaten or abused, he has right to receive compensation.  Typically the incarceration contract will specify the restitution for each kind of assault.
  7. The Prisoner has the right to have a computer, with any encryption software of his choice.  Nobody may force the Prisoner to reveal his password or open any files.
  8. The Prisoner has the right to wear any recording device (audio, video, pictures) and upload them on a remote site via an Internet connection.  The Prisoner has the right to setup his own wireless network in his room and setup the necessary software to upload videos in real-time to a third party website, typically a website owned by a friend who truly cares about the wellbeing of the Prisoner.
  9. The Prisoner has full access to court documents so he may review his case and/or file an appeal while incarcerated.  Having to wait until the sentence is over may cause irreparable damages to an innocent individual.
  10. Unless explicitly forbidden by a Judge (or Jury), the Prisoner has access to the Internet with transfer of 1 Gigabyte per day and a guaranteed speed of 1 Mbps.  This allows the Prisoner to make phone calls with software such as Skype, continue his defense and have access to court documents, share his story of his life in prison, and perhaps operate a business (depending what kind of business and what crime was committed).
  11. The Prisoner has the right to publicize all the court documents on the Internet.  The Internet is important tool to expose judiciary corruption, as anyone may review the judicial procedure.
  12. The Prisoner has the right to blog about his experience while in prison.

Lost Evidence

If any evidence gets "lost" then the Prisoner must be immediately released.  It is the responsibility of the Prison Operator to keep the evidence while the Prisoner is incarcerated, and an extra 5 years after being released.  This way, someone who did time in jail may investigate his trial and seek restitution if wrongfully accused.

Land Registrars

A Land Registrar is an Accredited Organization specializing in Land Registration.  Only Land Registrars in good standing are authorized to modify the Land Registry database which records the ownership of land and which jurisdiction (Landowner Association) the land is subject to.

Land Registrars will typically offer real estate brokerage services to individuals and businesses wishing to purchase land.

Land Registrar Accreditation

To qualify as a Accredited Land Registrar, the organization must qualify as an Accredited Organization, including paying the necessary fees to the Chief Land Registrar.

Land Registry

The Land Registry is a database recording the ownership of land by citizens.  Businesses wishing to acquire land must have a citizen in good standing as the trustee for the land.

Landowner Association

A Landowner Association is a physical jurisdiction committed to protecting property rights and land use while encouraging responsible environmental stewardship. To foster competition among Landowner Associations, a landowner may switch to any adjacent Landowner Association.  Of course, most parcel of land will be landlocked within an existing Landowner Association, however if a Landowner Association has bad rules or high fees, then slowly its landowners will migrate their land to a friendlier jurisdiction.

Landowner Association Requirements

  Any landowner(s) having 10 hectares or more may form their own Landowner Association.  If a piece of land does not belong to a Landowner Association in good standing, then it cannot be sold or used as collateral until it joins a Landowner Association which will meet the minimum criteria of 10 hectares and three (3) Dispute Resolution Organizations willing to resolve potential disputes between landowners and/or tenants.

Each Landowner Association must publish its rules on the Government Website.  For instance, a Landowner Association of homeowners in a residential area may forbid businesses producing bad smell (such as a pig farm, or a landfill / garbage dump), or business producing a lot of noise such as night clubs.  Likewise, a Landowner Association of organic farmers may forbid GMO crops to prevent contamination with their organic crops.

Fencable Land

The fencable land is any land which is 10 meters (32.81 feet) away from the center of the road.  Landowners are free to build anything considered eco-friendly within their fencable land, including fencing their land with a wall.

The purpose of this rule is to eliminate narrow roads which are dangerous for everyone, drivers, cyclists and pedestrians.  If an individual is allowed to own land until the very beginning of the road, then some individuals will wall their land until the side of the road, leaving no roam for the road to be widened, no sidewalk, no parking no room for large vehicles to circulate.  The solution is to declare thant any land wthin 10 meters (32.81 feet) from the center of the road is considered common land, where people have free access for traveling purpose.  The Landowner Association is responsible of maintaining any common land (including any road passing on such land) adjacent to its landowner(s).

  andallow roads to be widened in the future without having to demolish buildings, and also to facilitate

(Landowners are prohibited to build any permanent building withinn 10 meters (32.81 feet) from the center of the road.  This way, if the road has to be widened, or there is an emergency, the side of the road may be used without complications. 

 

 Responsibilities of a Landowner Association:

To ensure property rights and environmental rights are respected, each parcel of land, whatever it is only 1 square meter, must be a member of a Landowner Association.

 To qualify as a Landowner Association, the total land must be 10 hectares (24.71 acres) or more of adjacent (or neighboring) land. 

Environment Issues

To ensure the proprety of landowners is respected, the Landowner Association must get the approval from three (3) Dispute Resolution Organization willing to vouch on the project regarding the construction of a well, sewage system and waste disposal area.  Each well, sewage system or waste disposal area must be published on the Government Website with pictures and full disclosure regarding the technical details and the individuals responsible of building sucy a system.  The website must also enable individuals to comment if the construction of such a system represents a danger to the environment.

Eco-Friendly / Environmentally friendly

Property rights includes

Politics of Landowner Associations

Each Landowner Association must have a President which may be elected by landowners members of the association.

A Landowner Association cannot forbid the sale of land to a citizen, nor forbid a citizen to merge land, or join another Landowner Association.

Landowner Secession

Work-for-Food Coordinators

 

Accredited Organizations

In broad terms, an Accredited Organization is a group of Citizens having the authority to act as agents of the Government.  For instance, Civic Societies and a Dispute Resolution Organizations are specific Accredited Organizations having the authority to sponsor Citizens and resolve disputes special duties.

 

A generic Accredited Organization is a group of Citizens having the authority to certify individuals, and/or order Government Documents, such as Diplomas, Certificates, Driver Licenses, Visitor Cards.  Accredited Organizations have the authority to sponsor Visitors (tourists) and sponsor individuals as Certified Professional.

The purpose of having Accredited Organizations is to create a self-regulated market of competing organizations offering services and credentials to individuals and businesses.  For instance, a Civic Society has the authority to issue a Driver License, however an Accredited Organization may offer better rates and more coverage.  Likewise, a Civic Society may award a Diploma, however receiving a diploma from recognized Accredited Organization having a reputation of excellence may offer more value to the student than receiving a diploma from an unknown Civic Society.  Over time, specialization and competition will create a network of Accredited Organizations for every industry and profession.  To be clear, no individual may be forced to join any Accredited Organization.  An individual with a pair of pliers may call himself a Dentist, and someone owning a sharp knife may call himself a Surgeon.  Without any certification, it is likely the population (potential customers) may question the competences of such "professional", and may decide to go to another Dentist or Surgeon who is a member of a reputable Accredited Organization.  Notice there may be multiple Accredited Organizations offering diplomas and/or certifications for professionals, such as Dentists or Surgeons.  Organizations having high quality standards will attract the best Dentists (no good Dentist wants to be a member of an Organization having a bad reputation) and those with poor standards will eventually go out of business.

Here are a few examples of individuals joining an Accredited Organization:

Examples: University, Doctor Association, Alternative Medicine, Taxi Drivers, Truck Drivers, Mail Delivery, Babysitter.

A Civic Society and Dispute Resolution Organization are examples of Accredited Organizations.

 

Government Institutions

Government Institutions differ from Quasi-Government Organizations as they hold a monopoly on their governmental functions.  For instance, there is only one Village Council, Militia Academy, Minutemen Order, and Faculty of Liberty Scholars.

Government Institutions do not pay any Taxes.  are mostly funded from Taxes, Fees and are allowed to organize events to raise funds and recive donations from the public.  May have sponsors.

A unique characteristic of such institutions is they cannot go bankrupt. Therefore it is important to have a mechasm to ensure they do not accumulate any debts.

Debt and Credit Ratings

In this paragraph, the term "Institution" refers to either the Village Council,, the Militia Academy, the Minutemen Order, or the Faculty of Liberty Scholars.

The credit rule is simple: Institutions are forbidden to borrow any kind of money, however they may have short-term debts from unpaid bills and invoices, according to their credit ratings:

AAA - All bills and invoices have been paid within 7 days during the past 12 months.  This grants the privilege to the Institution to contract short-term debts up to one year.  For instance, the Village Council may sign a contract to repair a roof by making 10 equal monthly payments to a construction company.  The moment the contract is signed, the Village Council has created a short tem-debt of 10 months.

AA - All bills and invoices have been paid within 15 days during the past 6 months, granting the privilege to the Institution to contract short-term debts up to 6 months.  In our example above, if the Village Council has AA credit rating, then it would be obligated to pay in full the roof repairs within 6 months.

A - All bills and invoices have been paid within 30 days during the past 3 months, granting the privilege to the Institution to contract short-term debts up to 3 months.

B - At least one bill or invoice has been unpaid for more than 30 days.  At this point, the Institution cannot contract any short-term debt longer than 30 days.  This allows the Institution to conduct regular business, such as receiving monthly invoices (electricity, telephone, Internet), however cannot postpone its payments longer than 30 days.  Without this restriction, it would be tempting for the Institution find creative ways to defer (postpone) payments and/or rolling over its debts.

C - At least one bill or invoice has been unpaid for more than 60 days.  At this point, the Institution cannot contract any short-term debt and must pre-pay all its expenses.  No new bills or invoices are allowed, which means the Institution must cancel any automatic billing, such as electricity, telephone or Internet.  As an example, the Institution must pre-pay its electricity before consuming it.  If the pre-payment is considered insufficient by the utility company, the company has the right to cut off electricity.  This will force the Institution to prioritize its expenses and take proper actions to balance its budget.  Any individual working on behalf of the Institution, or a person selling anything to the Institution, willfully trying to circumvent this rule shall receive a Treason Warning.

D - At least one bill or invoice has been unpaid for more than 90 days.  At this point, the Treasury of the Institution has the obligation to transfer 10% of all incoming funds (gold) to pay the oldest debt.  Since the Institution must pre-pay everything, any outstanding bills and invoices will be paid eventually.  When the last outstanding debt has been paid in full, within 3 months, the Credit Rating of the Institution will return to A, and within a year, could return to AAA.

E - At least one bill or invoice has been unpaid for more than 2 years.  At this point, any bill older than one year is subject to an online referendum consulting the population to either pay off the bill immediately, or to purge it.  Citizens can vote paying 0% up to 100% of the balance of each bill.  Each Civic Society pays the bill on a per capita basis according to the percentage voted by its Citizens.  This way, if a purchase made by the Government was not relevant to a group of individual, such as a Civic Society, then the Citizens of this Civic Society may vote 0% and therefore will not disburse anything to pay this bill. This clause is important to prevent foolish debts, corruption or collusion.  For instance, a corrupt officer could use the Village Council to build an overpriced building in exchange of a bribe.  Since the contract is overpriced, the builder does not care if it takes decades to get paid.  Without this clause, the rest of the population must bear the cost of this mischievous contract while the Village Council is crippled until the debt is paid in full.  The inherent problem with "public debt" is a few individuals have the power to make purchases using others money, thus creating a system intrinsically nurturing corruption and collusion.  Having a referendum to pay debts solves the corruption problem because if a purchase was overpriced, then the seller may actually lose money.  Please bear in mind, if a debt is legitimate (meaning price was fair and the purchased goods and services are relevant to the operation of the Institution), it is likely the population will vote in favor to pay off the debt, however if the debt is the result of an act of collusion or corruption, then the people have the power to purge it.

These rules give plenty of autonomy to Institutions regarding their day-to-day operations, however give the people enough power to stop abusive debts.  People and businesses selling goods and services to Institutions will have an incentive to monitor the Institution's ability to pay on time.  If a purchase appears large compared to the Institution's income, then the seller should ask for a down payment.  If the Institution is unable to pre-pay, then it means the Institution cannot afford the purchase.  After all, the goal of this Constitution is keeping the government small and living within its means.

Billing Rules

 

Government Officers

A Government Officer is a Citizen at the head of a "department" with a mandate for specific tasks.  Each Government Officer is independent, having his own budget, with equal power vis-a-vis any other Government Officer.  There are twelve (12) Government Officers: five (5) from the Executive Branch (Mayor, Chief Land Registrar,  Vehicle Registrar, Gun Registrar and Treasurer), and seven (7) from the Oversight Branch (Webmaster, Privacy Guard, Vote Keeper, Director of Elections, Internal Bookkeeper, External Bookkeeper and the Chief Border Security).

No Citizen may serve more than twice as a Government Officer during his lifetime.  Therefore the maximum limit to serve as a Government Officer is 12 years.

A Government Officer has the freedom to hire people as Government Employees and contra

A Government Employee is a person working for the Government under the directions of a Government Officer.  Each Government Officer is elected with a budget and is free to hire employees helping him to perform his duties. There is no time limit for Government Employees, as long as a Government Officer is willing to hire him.

Many individuals around the world have suggested "to run the government like a business".  Well, this is how the Government of Village Libre operates.  The Mayor has a binding contract to run the print office and has the flexibility to contract and/or hire any citizen to get the job done. If the Mayor completes his mandate, he gets a bonus (20% of sales), otherwise he declares bankruptcy without bonus!  Other Government Officers also operate a similar basis: they sign a contract, are responsible of the expenses of their department, and keep the remaining profits as their salary.

Contracting with a Government Officer

When a new Mayor is elected, all previous contracts with the Executive Branch (previous Mayor) are null and void.  Therefore, the new Mayor does not inherit any baggage from previous Mayors which may have promised things outside the scope of their Presidency.  It is unfair for the new Mayor to be forced to obey the promises made by any previous Mayor, or worse to pay their debts.  As a result, every individual and business contracting with the Executive Branch of the Government must understand their contracts are automatically terminated when a new Mayor takes office, regardless of the length of the contract promised by the previous Mayor.  This clause gives flexibility to the new Mayor to contract with Citizen he wishes.  It is very likely however the new Mayor will keep most of the existing staff as it is the employees who knows how to get the job done.  Likewise, the new Mayor is likely to renew contracts with suppliers from the previous Mayor, however the new Mayor has the option to organize his team the way he feels would best serve the population.

Resignation of a Government Officer

A Government Officer may resign at anytime however however must forgo his Performance Bonus.  A Government Officer may go bankrupt.

Duties of the Mayor

(1) The Mayor is directly elected by Citizens residing in Village Libre, every 6 years.
(2) Before taking office, the Mayor and Vice-Mayor must take the following Oath or Affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute this office, honoring and obeying the Constitution of Village Libre".  Please take notice the Mayor cannot "protect" or "defend" the Constitution; the Constitution is written to protect citizens against the encroachments of the government.
(3) The Mayor chooses his Vice-Mayor, and he is free to change him at any time.
(4) The Mayor is the head of Village Libre.  He has the responsibility to make sure the government prints documents (passports, driver licenses, birth certificates, marriage certificates) as requested by citizens.
(5) The Mayor also has the right to negotiate treaties to make the passport and driver license recognized by other States.  All treaties signed by the Mayor must be approved by a referendum.

Print Office

The Print Office is the term to designate the place where the Government Documents are printed.  The Mayor is responsible of running the Print Office and hiring the necessary staff to print documents to Citizens, Residents and Visitors.

Passport Office

The Passport Office is a sub-department of the Print Office responsible for printing Passports.  It is likely the Passport Office will be in the same building as the Print Office, however it may be somewhere else.

Income of the Mayor

The Mayor of Village Libre keeps all the profits from the sales of Government Documents.  The purpose of this clause is to keep the government small, reduce corruption, and ensure peace.  Since the Mayor keeps the profits, every expense of the Executive Branch will be perceived by the Mayor as lowering his salary, thus motivating the Mayor to run his department in a cost-effective manner.

Likewise, accepting a bribe will give little benefits to the Mayor because the bribe implies the Government should give something of greater value to the corporation or special interests group purchasing influence.  Corporations do not give money to politicians and bureaucrats as charity, but only to secure a greater income through legislation, or to receive lucrative government contracts - creating a symbiosis between the government and special interest groups.  After all, it is easy for a politician or bureaucrat to give away taxpayers' money to a corporation when receiving generous kickbacks. The other alternative is not giving any profits to the Mayor.  In this scenario, the Mayor has no incentive to keep costs down.  In fact, the Mayor has every incentive to seek the highest budget and make extra money from bribes and corruption.

Giving away the profits to the Mayor is a cheap insurance to ensure peace, as the Mayor will have no financial benefit to purchase things that governments typically buys: weapons, tanks, fighter jets, bombers, military ships, submarines and so on.  Why would the Mayor purchase a fighter jet with his personal money if he has no guarantee the next Mayor will purchase anything from him.  The reason why most government purchase a lot of military equipment is because there is a win-win scenario between the government and the military industrial complex, of course at the expense of the taxpayer.

To ensure low fees per document, each Mayoral candidate must write a contract for the document fee schedule.  Competition among candidates will ensure a fair price per document.  Once a Mayor is elected, he is bound to provide documents at the price written in his contract.  The Mayor (or Government) cannot deny documents nor discriminate prices by giving a discount to a group of individuals.

Selling Government Documents

Most of Government Documents are issued by the Mayor through the Print Office. The sales of Government Documents is the only income for the Mayor which is at the head of the Executive Branch.

Bankruptcy of the Mayor

If the cost of production is higher than the sales of documents, the Mayor may use his personal money to offset the losses, or declare bankruptcy and resign without bonus.  A new Mayor will be elected - hopefully with better business skills at calculating the costs of printing documents.  The Mayor is forbidden to charge a higher fee per document than what he promised during his electoral campaign, however he may lower the fees until the last two years of his term.  During the last two years, the prices are frozen to prevent a "fire sale", leaving the next Mayor without any income because everyone purchased their documents at discount from the previous Mayor.  If prices are allowed to drop anytime, then a Mayor during the electoral campaign could lower the fee per document to "buy votes" and also for the purpose of financially hurting the next Mayor.  Although two years may appear arbitrary, if a Mayor wishes to give a discount for the last two years and live with the consequences of lowering his salary for such a long period of time, then let it be!

 

Duties of the Chief Land Registrar

Duties of the Vehicle Registrar

Duties of the Gun Registrar

Gun Registry

The Gun Registry is maintained by the Gun Registrar.  The purpose of the Gun Registry is to ensure the following:

A) Ensure those those who own weapons know about gun safety, storage and have a minimal training on using guns.

A Citizen wishing to own a gun must obtain a Gun Safety Certificate from the Militia Academy.  The purpose of the Militia Academy is teaching gun safety, how to properly store weapons and how to use them effectively.  Only the Militia Academy may grant a Gun Safety Cerfiticate. To prevent the Militia Academy to use its power to restrict gun ownership, the Militia Academy is obligated to grant certificates to at least 90% to those wishing to own weapons.  On very rare occasions, a Militia Instructor may deny a Citizen a Gun Safety Certificate if the instructor has evidence the Citizen is mentally unfit to own weapons.  Of course the Citizen may appeal, and a Jury of Citizens owning a Gun Safety Cerfiticate will arbitrate on the issue.

Once a Citizen is awarded a Gun Safety Cerfiticate, he receives a hardcopy of his certificate and his name is stored in the Gun Registry database as someone allowed to purchase weapons.

B) Restrict the sales of weapons only to Citizens who are mentally fit to own weapons.

The right to keep and bear arms is essential for the preservation of a free society, however there is a small percentage of the population who should not own guns.  This group includes criminals, individuals who are mentally ill and/or have serious anger management problems.  Once a Citizen obtained his Gun Safety Certificate, he may request a Gun Voucher Card from his Civic Society.  Each Civic Society has the ultimate decision regarding which of its Citizens are allowed to own weapons.  Please bear in mind the Civic Society is also responsible of the actions of its Citizens.  If a Citizen comits a crime using a weapon, then the Civic Society must use its Restitution Reserve to pay compensation for damages caused to the victim(s).

A Civic Society authorizes a Citizen for purchasing weapons by updating the Gun Registry database with a new Gun Voucher Card.  The electronic Gun Voucher Card contains three fields: a unique serial number, the Civic Society issuing the card and an optional comment regarding any restrictions on the type of weapons the Citizen is allowed to purchase.  For instance, a Gun Voucher Card may restrict a Citizen to purchase only one shotgun break-action single barrel.  Likewise, a Gun Voucher Card may deny a Citizen from purchasing automatic weapons. If a Citizen is unhappy about the decision of his Civic Society, he is welcome to pick another Civic Society.  The Civic Society may also print a physical card so the Citizen does not have to remember the serial number of his Gun Voucher Card.

When a Citizen is about to purchase a weapon, he must give his serial number to the current gun owner.  The gun owner must login to the Gun Registry database and record the transfer of a weapon to the owner of serial number on Gun Voucher Card.  The record must include a good quality picture and a short description of the weapon.  The Gun Registrar encrypts the information and sends it to the Civic Society who issued the Gun Voucher Card.  The Civic Society has the duty to contact the Citizen to acknowledge the purchase (to prevent an individual to use someone else's serial number) and grant the approval for the transfer of ownership.  If the Citizen wishes to skip being contacted by his Civic Society, he may choose the option to have his name and picture linked to his Gun Voucher Card.  In this case, the seller will see the name and picture of the buyer when consulting the database and will have a visual confirmation the Gun Voucher Card belongs to the buyer.

The seller must wait for confirmation from the Civic Society for final approval before handling the physical weapon.  This process is necessary in case there are some restrictions on the type of weapons to be purchased.  The confirmation is likely to be instant, as a Civic Society may pre-approve all purchases related to a Gun Voucher Card. The approval is made by having the Civic Society authorizing a payment to the Treasurer to pay the Gun Registrar for a gun transfer.  All those steps may be fully automated and approved within one second for Citizens having a good relationship with their Civic Society.  To enforce this rule, it is an act of treason for an individual to sell (or give) a gun without consulting the Gun Registry database.

C) Register all weapons and ammunitions owned by the Militia Academy whose sole purpose is teaching gun safety.

The Government is forbidden to own weapons, except the Militia Academy for the sole purpose of teaching gun safety.  All weapons and ammunitions owned by the Militia Academic must be registered and publicly visible on the Government Website.  It is the duty of the Gun Registrar to maintain an accurate database of pictures, description, origin and quantity of all weapons and amunitions owned by the Militia Academy.  To ensure transparency, a detailed log of all purchases and disposal of weapons must also be accessible on the Government Website.

 

Duties of the Treasurer

See Treasurer.

Duties of the Webmaster

The Webmaster is responsible of maintaining the main Government Website, including listing each Civic Society, Dispute Resolution Organization, Treasury, Treasury Audit Reports, Treaties, Real-Time Audit Report of all Government Transactions, and provide a mechanism for Online Voting of Government Officers, referendums and Treaties.

Government Website

The Government Website plays a vital social role at Village Libre.  Every social institution is listed on the Government Website, including Civic Societies, Dispute Resolution Organizations, Treasuries, Audit Information, Election Results as well as all Government Officers and Employees, and officers of other social institutions.

Questions and answers to become a Citizen.

Online voting.

Treaties.

Open Letters

Statistics.

Credit Ratings and Debts of Government Institutions and/or Village Council.

To ensure separation of powers, the Webmaster is elected independently rather than appointed by the Mayor.

People with disabilities.

webmaster: index audio, videos

Sub Domains

 

Duties of the Privacy Guard

The Privacy Guard is responsible of keeping the database of Citizens, Residents and Visitors, safe from unauthorized access, including protecting the privacy of individuals from the Mayor, Webmaster and Vote Keeper.

The duty of the Privacy Guard is to protect the privacy of individuals, which are Citizens, Residents and Visitors.  The Privacy Guard plays an important role in safeguarding private information such as the individual's name, date of birth, gender and picture.  The Privacy Guard is also responsible of taking pictures of new Residents and the oath or affirmation when the Resident wishes to become a Citizen.

The Privacy Guard has the authority to apply the private information (such as name and picture) to a template for producing an electronic document (such as a Visitor Card, Driver License, Passport) to be sent to the Print Office via the Webmaster.  The Webmaster log the entry for auditing and forward the electronic document to the Print Office which will issue a physical document, such as a card or booklet.

 

  For instance, when an individual wishes to become a Resident, he goes to the Privacy Guard to have his picture taken.

 which will take his picture and make a copy of two picture IDs, such as a foreign Passport or Driver License.  Those documents are stored in a database as a way to keep the identity of individuals.

When an individual wishes to request a Passport, the Civic Society pays the fee to the Passport Office which returns a Transaction Number to identify the order.  The Transaction Number is then sent (probably via Web Service) to the Privacy Guard which is responsible to send to the Passport Office the necessary information to print the passport, which includes the name, date of birth, and picture of the Citizen.  By having a Government Officer taking the picture rather than having the picture taken in a shopping mall, we reduce the risk of collusion between the photographer and individual to purchase a passport with the picture of another individual which is a form of identity theft.  Also, by having the Privacy Guard responsible of sending the vital information to the Passport Office reduces the risk of corruption from a Civic Society.  Otherwise it would be too easy for a Civic Society to sell passports to individuals.

 

 such as the picture of the individual, their name

Visitor

Resident

Citizen

 

Citizen Database

The Citizen Database stores personal information such as the name, date of birth and picture of every Citizen, Resident and Visitor.  It is called the Citizen Database because we wish to have as many citizens as possible, and hope our residents and visitors will eventually become citizens.

The Privacy Guard is responsible of maintaining this database and disclosing information only on a need to know basis.  For instance, the Print Office needs the name, date of birth and picture of an individual to produce a Driver License.  When a Civic Society or Accredited Organization requests a Driver License on behalf of a Citizen or Resident, the Privacy Guard will send the personal information to the Print Office so the Driver License may be produced.

Duties of the Vote Keeper

The Vote Keeper is responsible of recording all online votes and provide statistics and aggregate results available for the Webmaster to display them on the Government Website.  All online votes are anonymous to the Vote Keeper, however the Village Council or the Faculty of Liberty Scholars request an audit, then the data from the Bookkeepers will disclose what each Citizen voted.

Duties of the Director of Elections

The Director of Elections is a temporary Government Officer responsible of the integrity of the democratic process of one election involving paper ballots, typically a Mayoral Election or a referendum.  The Director of Elections is also responsible making the public aware of the upcoming election or referendum, renting offices for the voting booths, printing the paper ballots, and training Election Officers working at the voting booths on the election day.

Duties of the Internal Bookkeeper

The Internal Bookkeeper is responsible of storing encrypted data of all communication between computers of different government departments / officers (Mayor, Webmaster, Privacy Guard, Vote Keeper and Director of Elections) as well as all financial transactions done by the Government.  When a server sends a message to another server, both source and destination servers must send an encrypted copy of the message to both the Internal Bookkeeper and External Bookkeeper.  This way, the message is encrypted using four different Public-Keys and stored in a minimum of two different servers controlled by two different Government Officers.

Duties of the External Bookkeeper

The External Bookkeeper is a Government Officer having the same duties as the Internal Bookkeeper, except he does not live in Village Libre.  The duties of both Bookkeepers are simple: release the encrypted records only when requested the Village Council or the Grand Jury of Liberty.  The purpose of having two Bookkeepers is reducing the risk of collusion and corruption between an Bookkeeper and another Government Officer where some records could conveniently be deleted.  Also, having a backup server also increases the auditing reliability in the event a server is down due to a hardware failure, server maintenance, hacking and/or data vandalism.

The Webmaster, Privacy Guard, Vote Keeper, Director of Elections and the two Bookkeepers are elected by the Village Council and never report to the Mayor.  

Duties of the Chief Border Security

The Chief Border Security is a Government Officer responsible of the security of the border of Village Libre and secheule Border Agents.

Optional Government Officer: Chief Domain Registrar

The Chief Domain Registrar is an optional Government Officer responsible of maintaining a database of a domain names.  His role is very similar to the Chiel Land Registrar, however for the purpose of creating an independent layer of websites not subject to the whim of foreign governments.

Domain Registrar

A Domain Registrar is any Accredited Organization meeting the criterias set by the Chief Domain Registrar to access the database of domain names.  Only a Domain Registrar may add, delete and transfer domain names, and if the Domain Registrar acts in bad faith or commits fraud, then its Restitution Reserve will be used to cover the costs.

Domain Speculation

Since the total number of domain names is finite, we want to give everyone a fair chance to own a domain name.  Since the purpose of the Chief Land Registrar is prividing ultra-low cost domain names, the incentive for an individual to purchase many domain names for the purpose of reselling them at profit increases as the cost of having domain names decreases.  For this reason, individuals and businesses may hold a maximum of 10 unused domains.  Any generic website or parked domain is considered unused.  If an individual or business is found having more than 10 unused domains, he will lose all its unused domains without compensation.  To enforce this rule, the Chief Domain Registrar has the duty to list on the Government Website any entity owning more than 10 domain names.  This way, the population may consult the database to determine which entity is attempting to speculate on domains.  The names of the domain owners are kept secret by the Privacy Guard, however if a formal request is made regarding a dispute for a domain name, then the owners have the responsibility to appear before a Dispute Resolution Organization to settle the dispute.  Failure to do so will result in the loss of the domain name, and perhaps all unused domain names.

Eliminate Spam

Eliminating spam (unsolicited email message) have been on the "todo" list for decades, we believe the solution to combat spam will come from proper registration of domain names along with a mechanism of authentication before sending messages.  For instance, the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) allows any individual to send a message "from" an email address he does not own.  With the current email protocol, I could pretend   a domain he does not own. protocol which  At the moment, it is very easy for an individual to is no connection from

Worse of all, there is no built-in encryption in SMTP, so any node on the network may read the message and/or collect email addresses and spam others.

By the way, the elimination of spam and/or the encryption of mail messages may be addressed by any Government Officer, such as the Webmaster or the Privacy Guard.  It is not an act of Treason for a Government Officer to address the problem of spam and secure email messaging, without the presence of a Chief Domain Registrar.

If the protocol is successful, then a Civic Consensus may.  If adopted, it must be open source.  Better, to work with the open-source community to develop a spam-free secure messaging system.

  

Elections and Referendums

Every election and referendum must be open and audited.

Election of Government Officers

 Every Government Officer must be elected according to the rules of elections. A Citizen and may serve a maximum of two (2) terms during his lifetime, each having a maximum of six (6) years.  Therefore no Citizen may serve as a Government Officer more than twelve (12) years.

Election of the Mayor

The Mayor is elected by a general election from Citizens directly casting their votes on Paper Ballots or by Voting Online.  Since the Mayor may be considered the head of Village Libre and representing the people, then every Citizen-Residing-Taxpayer in good standing may vote to elect the Mayor.

Mayoral Candidate

To participate on the ballot, the Mayoral Candidate must have been residing in Village Libre during the previous election cycle.  This provision is to avoid having someone just becoming a Citizen, not aware of any culture, and become Mayor because of his oral skills, yet nobody knows him.  There are a lot of people dreaming to become Mayor, and the last thing we want is having people becoming Citizens of Village Libre with the goal of being elected as Mayor.

If there are more Mayoral Candidates than may fit on the paper ballot, then the Candidates with the most nominations are listed.  Nominations are obtained by getting signatures from Citizens.  A Citizen may nominate only one Candidate.

 

Election of the Chief Land Registrar

The Chief Land Registrar is elected solely from Land Registrars, each having a weighted vote of the square root of how much they paid in Man-Hours during the past 12 calendar months.  This way, the Land Registrars who spent the most have a bit more to say regarding the election of the Chief Land Registrar.  Citizens not owning land, or renting land, have no standing in deciding who will become the Chief Land Registrar.  Citizens who are landowners may directly vote for the Chief Lang Registrar provided the Land Registrar wishes to consult with them.  It is up to the Citizen to decide which Land Registrar he wishes to do business, and establish a contract with the Land Registrar for voting directly to elect the Chief Land Registrar.  Land Registrars cast their votes online to elect the Chief Land Registrar.

Election of the Vehicle Registrar

Election of the Gun Registrar

Election of the Treasurer

Elections of Other Government Officers

The other Government Officers are elected by the Village Council (the Civic Societies_ through online voting.  Citizens may vote for any Government Officer, and the remaining votes are left to the President of each Civic Society to cast votes on behalf of their Citizens who have not voted.  This way, if a Citizen abstain from voting because lack of time to learn about the Candidates, the President of his Civic Society will vote on his behalf, unless he abstains from voting.  For instance, one Candidate for the position of Webmaster may submit a contract to develop an interface to automate the ordering of Government Documents, or implement a feedback system to rate the performance of the Dispute Resolution Organizations.

does not vote because they do not have the time to learn about the Candidates, the President of the Civic Society may vote on their behalf.  The Government Officers, such as the Webmaster, Privacy Guard and Vote Keeper, are responsible of administrating servers and maintaining software.  Such technical positions require good knowledge from the voter to make a sound decision, and the cheapest bid may not be the best Candidate to vote.

Electoral Seats

The purpose of having Electoral Seats instead of a popular vote is preventing large Civic Societies to take control of the government by electing their favorite government officers.  The allocation of Electoral Seats is designed to give a voice to small Civic Societies, however keeping in mind a larger Civic Society should have more weight in the decision making than a smaller one. The rationale behind the Electoral Seats formula is to ensure fair elections by preventing the largest Civic Societies to collude and use their Citizen count to elect Government Officers without considering the needs of smaller Civic Societies.  We do not want a plutocracy of wealthy large Civic Societies controlling the Government.

The Electoral Seats is the weight, or number of votes (or seats), the Civic Society has for electing the Webmaster, Privacy Guard, Vote Keeper, Director of Elections and the Bookkeepers.  As a result, the Electoral Seats is a mathematical formula in relation to the number of Citizens.

No overhang seats.

Seats = sqrt(Citizens)

In plain English, the number of seats is the square root of the number of Citizens paying taxes.  For example, a Civic Society having 25 Citizens has 5 seats while a Civic Society having 100 Citizens has 10 seats.

Below is a table showing the Electoral Seats from the number of Citizens of the Civic Society:

Citizens Electoral Seats
20 4.472136
21 4.582576
22 4.690416
25 5
30 5.477226
Citizens Electoral Seats
40 6.324555
49 7
50 7.071068
100 10
200 14.14214
Citizens Electoral Seats
500 22.36068 
1,000 31.62278
10,000 100
100,000 316.2278
1,000,000 1000

 

Election of the Webmaster

The Webmaster is elected in a slightly different way than other Government Officers: two thirds of the votes come from Civic Societies and one third of the votes come from Accredited Organizations.  Since Accredited Organizations pay fees to be listed Government Website, they have voice regarding the election of the Webmaster.  After all, it is likely the fees paid by Accredited Organizations be sufficient for the salary and expenses of the Webmaster.

Each Accredited Organization has Electoral Seats (votes) according to the square root of the quantity of gold paid to the webmaster during the past 50 weeks prior the election.  Therefore, the organizations paying more fees have more votes with respect to other organizations.

 

Election of the Privacy Guard

The Privacy Guard is elected by the Civic Societies according to the number of Electoral Seats.  Each Civic Society submits how many votes for each candidate, and the candidate accumulating the most votes becomes the Privacy Guard.  For instance, a Civic Society of 25 Citizens may have 2 votes for Candidate A, 2.5 votes for Candidate B, 0.45 votes for Candidate C and 0.05 votes for Candidate D.

Election of the Vote Keeper

Duties of the Vote Keeper

Jury Pool

Vote Keeper (internal votes of the Civic Society and Accredited Organization)

Surcharges

 

Election of the Director of Elections

Duties of the Director of Elections

Internal Bookkeeper

  1.  so the Bookkeepers cannot decrypt any of content without having
  2.  content. also encrypt the message using Public-Key Cryptography and sent a copy of the encrypted record to the Bookkeepers.  Likewise, the server receiving the message must encrypt
  3.  such as a Citizen voting for a Treaty,
  4. All database records are encrypted by the  database is encrypted using a Public-Key Cryptography and only a Civic Society may decrypt its content.
  5. External Bookkeeper.

 

External Bookkeeper

Must past the Citizenship test.

Both officers are elected by the Village Council

 

Election of the Chief Domain Registrar

The election of the Chief Domain Registrar (if any) is done the same way as the Chief Land Registrar, that is, only the Accredited Organizations who purchased domain names are allowed to vote for the Chief Domain Registrar.

 

Referendums

A referendum is required to change any parameter of the Constitution, sign any Treaty with a foreign nation, or to recall the Mayor.  For any referendum to become valid, three-fourth of the Citizens and three-fourth of the Civic Societies must vote in favor of the referendum.  Abstention from voting is equivalent to a no vote.

Concurrent majority is required as a safeguard against the tyranny of the majority, where large Civic Societies may collude for a Treaty or attempt change the Constitution to their benefits at the expense of smaller Civic Societies.  Without concurrent majority, small Civic Societies may vote themselves policies at the expense of large Civic Societies, thus defeating the majority rule.  Concurrent majority is like having a House of Representative and a Senate, where each Citizen is like a Congressman represents himself, and each Civic Society votes like a Senator representing its State.

Although Civic Societies have unanimous consent of the governed, the voting result of each Civic Society is the aggregate result of its Citizen votes.  At a Referendum, the president of the Civic Society cannot vote on behalf of his Citizens; he may only vote for himself.  This is to prevent betrayal, collusion or corruption from presidents of Civic Societies by voting for something that do not reflect the will of their citizens.

A Citizen may vote online from his account on the Government Website, or using a paper ballot.  To receive a paper ballot, the Citizen must show a proof of Citizenship such as a Citizenship Card or a Passport.  On the ballot, a sticker is written with the code of his Civic Society, so each vote may be counted towards their respective Civic Society.  For a Civic Society to "vote yes", three-fourth of its citizens must explicitly vote yes.  Again, abstention from voting is the equivalent of a no vote.  If people are too lazy to vote, then it means the Referendum is not that important.

Net Votes & Absolute Net Majority

The term Net Votes is the total number (or percentage) of Citizens voting in favor of a proposition minus those opposing it. For instance, if 76% of all Citizens favor the construction of a fence around Village Libre, however 11% of Citizens oppose, then the Net Votes is 65%.

The Absolute Net Majority requires a Net Vote greater than 50%.  The concept of Net Votes is an important provision to prevent controversial proposals, such as 51% of Citizens voting in favor while 49% fiercely opposing it, to be approved as it would be the case under strict democracy.  If more than 25% of the Citizens oppose a proposal, it means the proposal is bad and does not met the requirement of Absolute Net Majority even if 75% of the other Citizens are in favor.  Also, if more than 50% of Citizens do not vote, then the Absolute Net Majority is not met.

Negative Votes

Referendums with Paper Ballots

The Civic Societies vote on the Director of Elections which has the responsibility with organization will be responsible to carry the elections.

Paper Ballots

Paper ballot is an absolute right to maintain the integrity of the democratic process and keep the vote anonymous.  The Paper ballot must display a small picture (minimum 2.5 cm by 2.5 cm) of the Candidate as well as his name, so people who are not good with names may recognize the face for voting.

Prevent cooping.

Nomination on Paper Ballots

Counting of Paper Ballots

It's not the people who vote that count. It's the people who count the votes.
-- Josef Stalin

Due to massive vote fraud worldwide, including in modern societies such as United States of America and Canada, this Constitution outlines the rules for counting the paper ballots.

  1. Ballot Boxes must be clear. 

    Transparent ballot boxes may be used in order for people to be able to witness that the box is empty prior to the start of the election 

  2. Reporters and representative for each candidate must have full access
  3. Before the counting starts, every representative must sign to acknowledge the integrity of the paper ballots in the election process.  This is to ensure there is no ballot stuffing. Most election systems match the number of persons showing up to vote with the number of ballots cast, and/or preparing the forms so that they are difficult to fake
  4. There must be cameras with a live feed
  5. Tally is the official result. It is an insult to the democratic process to have unknown people picking up the ballot box and transporting the ballots to an unknown location where unknown people "count" them to give the "official" election result.  The staff at the polling station shall be pre-qualified to have enough IQ for counting votes.  A typical 10 year old child is capable to count, so it should not be a problem to find a few individuals within the society capable to count paper ballots.  No need for an overlord to count the votes.  It is much better to have corruption in one poll station, than having corruption in the entire country.

hand counted.

 This is because hand counted votes on paper ballots can be transparent and verifiable.    Bi-partisan election judges control voting and vote counting in precinct polling locations.  Unaccountable vendors and government staffers control voting and vote counting for unsolicited mail ballot elections.   Voting in person insures that eligible voters are not turned away from the polls; they place their own anonymous ballot into the ballot box to be counted; and ineligible voters might be caught if they attempt to cast a ballot at the polls.  Voting by unsolicited mail or absentee ballot, even if the ballots are delivered by hand, frequently causes voters to lose their vote; requires voters to trust in luck that their ballot will get delivered on time (if submitted by mail) and actually gets into the ballot box (even if delivered by hand); and allows ineligible people to safely vote other people's ballots knowing that they cannot be caught.

Online Voting

For convenience, people may vote online.  Every individual has an account within the Citizen Database enabling him them to elect a Government Officer, vote on a Referendum, or change the minimum requirement of the Restitution Reserve.

Online voting is conducted in such a way that all votes are anonymous, unless an audit is conducted.  If an audit is performed, then the Bookkeepers will release the necessary information to link each casted vote to an account from the Citizen Database.  As a result, Citizens wishing to remain completely anonymous, even in the event of an audit, must cast their votes on paper ballots. Having the option to audit online voting is vital to deter vote fraud and corruption.  Hand-counted votes on paper ballots is transparent and verifiable, however anonymous online is unverifiable, as any corrupted officer or hacker may modify the database recording the votes and change the outcome of an election.

Proponents for voter anonymity wish to prevent vote selling or voter intimidation.  Our system of paper ballots and online voting prevents both, as a voter cannot prove he voted for a candidate, unless there is an audit.  Only the Village Council or the Faculty of Liberty Scholars may request an audit, and a Grand Jury of Liberty Scholars may grant the audit, which demands the Bookkeepers to release the encrypted records to the Civic Societies to decrypt them, so the audit committee may use the Citizen Database and Voting Database to link each vote to a Citizen.  It is quite difficult for an ordinary Citizen to prove he voted for a candidate.

In most cases, only Citizens in good standing are allowed to vote, however there may be cases where Residents and Visitors allowed to vote on certain issues.  For instance, an Accredited Organization may use online voting to elect its president, and all members, which includes Residents and Visitors are allowed to vote.

Fractional Votes

Every vote counts

Voting Machines

Unlike Paper Ballots or Online Voting, Voting Machines delete all evidence of the election process.  Those machines cannot be audited, meaning any hardware malfunction, software bug, or any tampering may change the election outcome.  Since there are no physical paper records that can be recounted, there are no ways to know what people actually voted using such machines.  Trusting the corporation(s) who built those machines, or trusting the individuals who purchased them, or the staff collecting election results from those machines opens a wide door for corruption.

Advocates for Voting Machine argue that there is a significant cost for printing paper ballots.  Our answer is the following: the goal is not saving money; it is having a reliable mechanism for counting votes.  If a society cannot afford printing one paper ballot per citizen for an election which occurs only once every 6 years, then we could beg producers of junk mail to stop for one day, so we could spare paper worth a century of elections.  Besides, those machines are super expensive: a typical Voting Machine cost several times the price of a high-end computer fully loaded with state-of-the-art components.

As a result, those expensive piece of junk are prohibited at Village Libre.  The case for Voting Machines is not open to debate.  Period.  Anyone promoting such nasty machines will receive a Treason Warning.  If the Director of Elections is offered an "opportunity" to purchase or promote Voting Machines, then he has to report the offender to the Village Council otherwise he will have his Citizenship revoked.

Electoral Fraud

If a fraud is discovered, or an "irregularity" is discovered, then either the Director of Elections, or the Vote Keeper, or both, will lose their Performance Bonus.  If it can be proven an act of Treason was committed, then they will lose their Loyalty Bonus and receive a Treason Warning.

In the case of electoral fraud, the election must be remade within 15 days on Paper Ballots only.

Militia Academy

The Military Academy is governed by the Village Council.

Militia of Volunteers

The Village Council has the authority to establish a Militia Academy for training the Militia.  The Militia Academy and Militia cannot be funded by any taxes; only voluntary donations from willing sponsors are allowed.  The Militia Academy

Minutemen

Minutemen are distinguished Militia members who have demonstrated a high level of integrity and intelligence.  They are typically the instructors at the Militia Academy and also the civilian first line of defense.

he guardians of peace and justice in the Village. mediate peace negotiations

Minutemen are the equivalent of the Jedi Knights in the Star Wars universe.

 individuals who demonstrated.  High integrity.  Skilled verbally to resolve disputes without the use of force.

Skilled with weapons and martial arts.

Minutemen Order

 

Military

The Government is forbidden to have any standing army and/or control any military action.  Again, it is the responsibility of individuals to provide for their own security and protection.  Civic Societies are likely to make reciprocity agreement to defend each other in case of a foreign invasion.  In the last resort, people are capable to defend themselves.  It is foolish to suppose that men are so stupid that they need rhetoric from ever-changing politicians and red tape from bureaucrats coercing them how to organize and tell them what to do, however the same men have the wisdom elect the "right" liar politician as commander-in-chief to conscript enslave them in the military, yet the very same individuals are incapable to organize to defend themselves effectively under freedom.  If collectivism has proved itself inefficient, wasteful, and dangerous in such areas as transportation and medicine, surely the worst place of all to have collectivism is in the vital area of defense against foreign aggression. The freer people are, the more efficiently they will perform. This being true, a free-market system of defense against foreign aggression can be expected to be very effective, in contrast to a governmental system of comparable size, resources, and maturity.

Since the development and maintenance of modern weaponry is quite expensive, all but the largest Civic Societies (or insurance companies) would probably pool their efforts and resources under competitive pressure to provide the best possible protection at the lowest cost. For the same reasons of efficiency, they would tend to purchase all their foreign aggression defense needs from a few outstanding companies which could cooperate closely with each other. Competition between the defense companies to get such profitable business would foster the development of the most powerful and efficient defense system rationally warranted. Technological innovations which are at present unforeseeable would constantly upgrade its safety and effectiveness.  No governmental system, with its miles of red tape and built-in politicking, pork-barreling, wire-pulling, featherbedding, and power-grabbing could even remotely approximate the potency and efficiency naturally generated by the free-market forces (which are always moving to meet demand).

Those who doubt that "the private sector" of the economy could sustain the expense of a free enterprise defense system would do well to consider two facts. First, "the public sector" gets its money from the same source as does "the private sector" - the wealth produced by individuals. The difference is that "the public sector" takes this wealth by force (which is legal robbery) - but it does not thereby have access to a larger pool of resources. On the contrary, by draining the economy by taxation and hobbling it with restrictions, the government actually diminishes the total supply of available resources. Second, government, because of what it is, makes defense far more expensive than it ought to be. The gross inefficiency and waste common to a coercive monopoly, which gathers its revenues by force and fears no competition, skyrocket costs.

The more totalitarian a country, the more its citizens must be motivated, not by the incentive of expected rewards (the profit motive), but by fear. Without freedom to enjoy the rewards of his productivity, a man has no incentive to produce except his fear of a government gun. But a threat will evoke only that minimum performance necessary to avoid the
threatened harm, and that only insofar as the threatener is constantly watching. Even more crippling is the fact that threats don't produce innovative ideas. A man's mind can only belong to him; he is the one person who can order that mind to produce ideas. Fear is paralyzing; if a threat is strong enough to motivate a man to try to produce an innovative idea, it will usually generate too much fear for him to think clearly. This is why dictatorships find it necessary to permit their scientists and other intellectuals a special privileged status with extra liberties and incentives. They must do this, even though it is extremely dangerous to a tyranny to harbor intellectuals who are free to think and express even mild condemnation of their rulers. Tyranny by itself is impotent because looters don't produce and producers can't produce unless they're free to do so.

In a free-market defense system, the size of the armies and the expenditures for armaments would be automatically regulated according to the need for them. Consumers would buy more insurance when aggression threatened, and less when the tensions eased.  No army could grow beyond what the market would support; and the market would never support an army larger than was actually necessary for defense, because force is a non productive expenditure of energy. This automatic responsiveness of arms to world situation would avoid the economic drain of maintaining standing armies larger than necessary, yet still allow for quick increase in arms when needed, thus leaving more resources for defense when needed.

Governments don't really defend their citizen-subjects at all. Instead, they provoke wars, and then they force the citizens to sacrifice their money, their freedom, and often their lives to defend the government. Such "defense" is worse than no defense at all!

A free-market defense system would also make it very difficult for an attacker to obtain a surrender. Just as a laissez-faire society would have no government to start a war, it would have no government to capitulate. The defenders would fight as long, and only as long, as they believed was in their self-interest. Even the insurance companies and defense agencies couldn't negotiate a surrender, because their agreements could bind no one but the persons who actually signed them. It is interesting to speculate on what an aggressive foreign nation would do if confronted with such a situation.

For more details, please read the chapter Foreign Aggression (starting at page 126) from the book The Market for Liberty written by Morris and Linda Tannehill.  If you wish a treatise on the topic, feel free to read the magnum opus book The Myth of National Defense written by Hans-Hermann Hoppe.

 

War

The Government of Village Libre is forbidden to declare war to any country, state, or group of individuals.  If people at Village Libre feel victim of a foreign invasion, they will defend themselves without waiting for the Government to make an official war declaration towards the invaders.

Some individuals believe they have the moral responsibility to spread democracy around the world.  There are the of course the warmongers, who are typically chicken-hawks having no shame drafting enslaving others to fight their political war using money collected at gunpoint from the taxpayers.  Most of those warmongers are profiteers of war, either paid by the Elite having lucrative contracts financing the war (and collecting interest on those loans of fiat money), or by providing military equipment sold at an exorbitant price, sometimes to governments on both sides of the war.

There are other individuals who truly believe in democracy and willing to risk their lives to protect their country.  We salute you!  If you are among such individuals, please consider being personally involved by sponsoring a family from a war-torn region.  As a Resident or Citizen, you have the power to sponsor individuals to immigrate at Village Libre.  Instead of attempting to spread democracy at gunpoint, give people an opportunity to vote with their feet, so the victims of a war-torn region may find a new home at Village Libre.  Teaching freedom by concrete humanitarian actions has much greater success than killing innocent civilians, torturing insurgents, or getting yourself killed.  Those families deciding to immigrate to Village Libre will learn about genuine freedom and will teach their relatives about solutions to bring peace.  Some Civic Societies and Accredited Organizations will specialize in sponsoring refugees which you are free to join and/or give your financial support.

Police

There are no "Police Officers" at Village Libre.  It is the responsibility of individuals to provide for their own security and protection.  An individual may hire a private security guard, or sign a contract with a Civic Society (or a private security firm) to protect his family and property.  It is very likely Civic Societies will offer many protection services, including protection against assault, rape, kidnapping, theft, vandalism and natural hazards.  Civic Societies are likely to offer compensation for the loss or damage of property, similar as insurance companies give money to their customers who are victim of theft or fire.

At Village Libre, private security personnel do not enjoy special privileges of limited liability persons, that is, the privilege of bullying and assaulting people while getting away with it, as police officers do.  Not every police officer is violent, as there are good police officers in every country, however police brutality remains a worldwide problem.  At Village Libre, any hired security officer is responsible and accountable for his actions.  He has no more power than what was delegated by the individual hiring him.

 

Border Protection

 

Border Agent

The purpose of having a Border Agent is to prevent unwanted individuals roaming in Village Libre.  Border Agents must receive basic training and be certified by the Village CouncilCivic Societies and Accredited Organizations are free to hire any certified Border Agent and a Border Agent may be hired by several organizations simultaneously.  The compensation of the Border Agent is any mutual agreement between him and a Civic Society or Accredited Organization.

Border Protection

Village Libre may be considered as a large gated community where one has to be "invited" in order to get in.  The invitation must come from a Civic Society or an Accredited Organization in good standing willing to sponsor the individual as a Visitor.  Later, the Visitor may become a Resident and a Citizen.

The protection of the boundary of Village Libre is the responsibility of the Village Council.  The Village Council has the authority to determine the number of Border Agents necessary to verify the identity of people getting inside Village Libre.

Although people are responsible of their own security and protection, the border is the first line of defense against criminals wishing to enter (and exit) Village Libre.  If necessary, the Village Council may solicit bids to build a fence around the territory.  The type of fence is decided by a referendum asking the Citizens which type of fence they approve and willing to fund.  When a Citizen approves a contract (type of fence), he is also approving its cost.  Economics will determine the optimal border security.  Some individuals may dislike the idea of living within walls, and would prefer the border to be an open space with a few Border Agents on the side of the road checking IDs at the entry of Village Libre.  Each land owner is free to build a fence (or wall) around his land.  If crime is a problem, it may be cheaper and more effective to build a fence (or wall) around the entire Village than having each fence (or wall) around each building.

To build aThe Vote Keeper has the duty to conduct an onli

Absolute Net Majority

 and a levy will be immediately levied on Civic Societies on a per capita basis.

 a The bid (contract) receiving the highest

 

Crossing the Border

 

Anyone wishing to cross the border without being sponsored by a Civic Society in good standing must pay the full price of a Passport as a fine, and have his picture and fingerprint taken to be digitized and stored in the Citizen Database.  The fine paid by the individual goes into the General Fund.  The purpose of this clause is to urge people to find a sponsor, and most importantly, make ostracism powerful and effective, without having jails at the border to incarcerate individuals without proper documentation.  We want our borders to be as open as possible, and never deny entry to anyone, even to individuals without any document.  Of course, the Border Agent has the authority to call a special unit to investigate a strange individual, especially if dangerous material such as explosives or chemicals, have been detected.

No need to take fingerprints for those showing a valid ID.  The purpose of taking fingerprints is to allow entry to individuals having no documents, and by the same token, have a reliable method to catch criminals.  Village Libre is not a sanctuary for criminals, it is likely a Fingerprint Treaty will be signed with neighbor nations to share collected fingerprint.  Those fingerprints would be sent anonymously (without any name or picture), so if a country claims the individual matching such fingerprints is a criminal, then he will have a fair trial at Village Libre.  The criminals pretending having no ID will not escape their fate by entering into Village Libre.

It is likely Civic Societies will train their Border Agent to grant instant Visitor status to any tourist showing a valid ID from a respected country.  As a result, the duty to provide a Border Agent may no longer be considered as an expense, but an opportunity to recruit new members for the Civic Society.  It is also likely businesses will be happy to sponsor tourists.  For instance, a car rental company may offer a free Visitor Card to anyone renting a car for more than 3 days.

A citizen discovering his Civic Society is not in good standing, may decide to change Civic Society right at the border.  On the Government Website, changing Civic Society is as simple as a few mouse clicks, provided, of course, the new Civic Society is willing to accept you as a customer.  It is likely Civic Societies will compete to attract customers, similar as credit card and telephone companies want good customers. An individual who has been ostracized by all Civic Societies will discover it becomes quite expensive to leave and return to Village Libre, thus compelling him to behave properly. 

Since Civic Societies have the authority to issue their own Visitor Cards, a machine at the border could produce the card within minutes.

An individual forgetting his Citizen, Resident or Visitor card shall not have his fingerprint taken.  The Border Agent has the duty to call his Civic Society which will confirm his identity.

Forbidden Imports

Human Organs

No embargo, or economic sanctions.

 

Forbidden Exports

Individuals living at Village Libre cannot sell weapons to non-citizens.  This restrictions on exports is to prevent weapons to be sold to visitors and later resold to people having questionable ethics regarding their use of guns.  By keeping weapons within our village, we prevent thieves, murders, terrorists and other governments to purchase weapons manufactured in Village Libre.

 

Immigration

At Village Libre, we want immigration to be safe and efficient.  To accomplish this, immigration and citizenship is carried by any Civic Society (in good standing) willing to sponsor Visitors, Residents and Citizens.  Competition among Civic Societies will ensure the process is safe because each Civic Society is responsible of the action of its members.  Competition will guarantee a speedy procedure, otherwise people will pick another Civic Society offering a better and faster service to sponsor immigrants.

When an individual wishes to visit Village Libre, he must find a Civic Society in good standing willing to sponsor him as a Visitor.  The easiest way for obtaining a Visitor status is contacting a Resident or Citizen asking his Civic Society to sponsor a Visitor.  Sponsoring an Visitor is as simple as uploading a picture and entering the Visitor name to the Citizen Database.  Since the Civic Society is responsible of the actions of the Visitor, the Civic Society may require additional documents about the Visitor.  A Resident or Citizen having a good reputation of sponsoring Visitors may have all his requests instantly approved by his Civic Society.  The Visitor may have his Visitor Card issued (printed) at the moment he arrives at the border.

Free Exit

Everyone has the right to exit Village Libre without paying any fee.  Free exit is analogous to having the right to leave a store, where the store owner has no right to keep you inside coercing you to purchase his product.  On the other hand, free exit does not mean the right to leave if suspected of theft.  Likewise, the Border Agent has the right and duty to stop and inspect an individual and his belongings upon probable cause of theft.

Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
-- Article 13(2), Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

 

 

Treaties

The Mayor has the authority to negotiate treaties with other nations.  All treaties must be visible on the Government Website so everyone may read them.

Example of hypothetical treaties:

Treaty Entry

For a treaty to become valid, a Referendum must be held, where three-fourths of the resident Citizens vote in favor of the treaty, and three-fourths of the Civic Societies vote in favor of the treaty.  It is important to have 75% of the votes from both the Citizens and Civic Societies, to prevent a large Civic Society having a lot of Citizens to impose a treaty on others, or have several small Civic Societies voting for a treaty against a large Civic Society.

Treaty Withdrawal

Every treaty must have an exit clause, otherwise the treaty is not valid.

A treaty is automatically terminated when the absolute majority of the Citizens opt-out from the treaty.  The Government Website must display a list of all treaties, and a mechanism (such as a checkbox) for each Citizen to individually opt-out from any treaty.  The Government Website must also display the percentage of opt-out for each treaty, grouped by Civic Society.  Such statistic is important to identify groups who dislike the treaty so persuasive actions may be taken to demonstrate benefits of the treaty.

In all cases, the privacy of individuals opting out of a treaty must be respected, and no group may use force or the threat of using force towards people opting out of a treaty.

Treaty Fees

If a treaty involves any fee, the fees are paid by the Civic Societies directly to the agency of the treaty.

  For instance, a Water Treaty, each Civic Society would send their "share" of funds directly to the team responsible to monitor the quality of water.

Examples of Treaties

Driver License

Fingerprint

Civic Consensus

Government Documents

A Government Document is the generic term referring to a document issued by the Government of Village Libre.  Typical Government Documents are Passports, Driver Licenses, Certificates and Diplomas.  More than one entity is authorized to issue a Government Document.

The following table describe which organization may order Government Documents.  For instance, a Passport may be ordered only by a Civic Society in good standing.  An Academic Certificate may be ordered only by an Accredited Organization in good standing.  The Militia Academy may order a Militia Volunteer Certificate, however the payment must come from the Civic Society of the Citizen receiving the certificate, and an Officer from this Civic Society must sign the certificate to acknowledge the individual is fit to earn this title.  A Jury Volunteer Certificate may be ordered by a Civic Society, an Accredited Organization or by the Faculty of Liberty Scholars.

Government Document Civic Society Accredited Organization Government Institution Non-Government Document Allowed?
Work-for-Food Visa   Yes   Yes * (7 days max)
Visitor Card Yes Yes   Yes * (30 days max)
Resident Card Yes      
Citizen Card Yes      
Passport Yes      
Birth Certificate Yes Yes ** (medical only)
Marriage Certificate Yes Yes    
Driver License (Local) Yes Yes   Yes
Driver License Yes Yes    
Driver License (International) Yes Yes    
Academic Certificate   Yes   Yes
Professional Certification   Yes   Yes
Diploma   Yes   Yes
Land Title   Yes *** (only by a Land Registrar)    
Gun Safety Certificate     Militia Academy  
Gun Voucher Card Yes     Yes (only by a Civic Society)
Jury Volunteer Certificate Yes Yes Faculty of Liberty Scholars  
Liberty Scholar Diploma Payment + Signature   Faculty of Liberty Scholars  
Border Agent Certificate Payment + Signature   Militia Academy  
Militia Instructor Diploma Payment + Signature   Militia Academy  
Militia Volunteer Certificate Payment + Signature   Militia Academy  
Minuteman Diploma Payment + Signature   Minutemen Order  

* Civic Societies and Accredited Organizations may print their own Visitor Cards, however the validity of those cards is limited to 30 days, compared to 6 years for a Visitor Card issued by the Government.
** An Accredited Organization may order a Birth Certificate from the Government only if 3 (or more) Civic Societies recognize this organization for having professionals assisting mothers giving birth.  Accredited Organizations not involved in the medical field are prohibited to order Birth Certificates.
*** Only a Land Registrar (which is an Accredited Organization specializing in land registration) may order a Land Title which is a certificate of land ownership.

No organization may order a Government Document if not in good standing.  The same rule applies to Government Institutions which are required to maintain the minimum capital as Restitution Reserve to remain in good standing.

 

Document Price Limit

The purpose of having a price limit is to guarantee every Government Document remains affordable for the average individual, including students, employees working at retail store or a fast-food restaurant.  One may ask, why would people elect a Mayor promising expensive documents, such as Passports and Driver License.  Well, history shows there are plenty of cases where individuals decide to form a cartel, and prefer to restrict the supply of a commodity in order to profit from it.

 Risk of bullying and ostracism is possible.  A cartel or monopoly is not a product of the free market, but the effect of Government restrictions.  Even a small Government like Village Libre may create a cartel.  Some individuals will look for holes and creative ways to exploit others.  It is better to be safe than sorry.

Licensing benefits professional cartels. It does not benefit consumers.

Taxi license, milk production, ban import on slavery, prevent outsourcing, business licenses, permits.  It has nothing to do to enhance safety or quality of product or service.  Once the cartel is established, people use propaganda to justify  As long as prices are going up, the restriction appear to be an "investment", often quite profitable.  The members of the cartel greatly benefit for it and will voluntary vote to tighten the cartel.  Such "investment" does not produce anything.  In fact, it reduces the production of good of services, not only in the industry, but in other sectors.  The money and time add extra costs of bureaucracy.  Billions of dollars are locked in "papers" (permits) which produce no value to society.

There is always a risk the population could vote to have very high prices for a Driver License or a Passport in order to establish a cartel, or an elite of Citizen.  Of course, the Mayor collecting the fees would not object receiving more money, and would cheer at such an idea, eventually establishing a "logical" reason why such high prices are important to "protect" jobs and/or maintain national security.  There are always intellectuals willing to go in bed with the Government in exchange for money, prestige and power.  Those intellectuals would devise a theory why such cartel is good.  We know it is not true, however in order to avoid such scenario, it is better to have a price limit written in the Constitution.  Therefore there will be no debate on the issue.  People wishing to pay more for Government Document will have to live with cheaper prices!

 

Passport

A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder.

The purpose of a passport is to show other nations that you are a legal citizen of your particular nation of origin.

The Passport of Village Libre is unique, as it offers the best identity in the world as well as an insurance world wide.

a liability

One could live his entire life at Village Libre without purchasing a Passport from the Government.  He is free to use a passport issued by another Government when traveling abroad, however those who wish to purchase a Passport from the Government of Village Libre, will get a quality document.  A travel document that inspire respect.

A certificate of identity, sometimes called an alien's passport, is a travel document issued by states to stateless persons residing within their borders and foreign nationals who are unable to obtain a passport from their state of nationality

The only entity allowed to print passports is the Government of Village Libre.

  The Civic Society sponsoring a Citizen must pay to the Government the fee to print the passport and supply the require  All passports must be sold at the same price and have the same format, and only to Citizens living within the territory.

Passport Requirements and Procedures

 

  Selling passports over the Internet is forbidden to individuals who never lived in Liberty Village.  This is important to give integrity to our passport and earn the respect of other nations.  Respect is earned and it starts by supplying quality documents.

Passport Content

Passport With The Biometric Chip

Citizens are free to choose if they want the chip on their passport.  It is the responsibility of the Government to list on its website what countries accept a passport without the chip.  If a Citizen has no plan to visit a country where the chip is required, then he is free to order a passport without the biometric chip.  The passport with the chip cannot cost more than twice the regular passport.

Passport Card

For convenience, a card-size passport must also be given at the same time as ordering the full size passport.  The dimension of the card is the same as a credit card or driver license.  This way

Passport Online

 

Diplomatic Passport

 We want a society of equals, so Diplomatic Passports and Titles of Nobility are forbidden.  Equality starts from day one!

Ambassadors and Embassy

Each Civic Society is free to set up an office in a foreign country, or have a toll free.  Also the Government Website provides a way for Citizens to print an emergency passport from their online account.

No Nobility, no Diplomatic Passports

Official Status

The term "official" is often a requirement for an organization, such as a Civic Society or Dispute Resolution Organization, to remain in good standing.  For instance, a Civic Society must have contracts with three (3) DROs to remain an "official" Civic Society.  Likewise, a an "official" DRO requires contracts with Civic Societies in good standing.  This is the system of checks and balances to prevent a Civic Society to collude with a DRO to enforce unfair rules.

Any Civic Society with less than three (3) contract is still a Civic Society, however loses its "official" status, and therefore its members may not request any Government Documents nor invite Visitors, until the "official" status has been restored.  Likewise, a Civic Society having its Restitution Reserve below the threshold also loses its "official" status. Therefore the organizations have an incentive to remain in good standing otherwise risk of losing its members.  The Government Website must list all Civic Societies and the date since they have maintained the "official" status.

A Treasury having the official status requires having five (5) official Civic Societies doing business with it.  This way, a Treasury is safekeeping gold as the Restitution Reserve for a minimum of 50 Citizens.

Official Title

The term "official" may also be extended to other professions.  For instance, Civic Societies may nominate doctors.  For an individual to have the "official title" of doctor, he must have contracts with 3 official Dispute Resolution Organizations willing sponsor him as a doctor and arbitrate in case of a professional dispute.  Those DROs will set the rules and the requirements, such as education level, professional experience and insurance, for the individual to become a "licensed doctor".  A doctor without the "official" title may call himself "doctor" however cannot put on his business card "official doctor".  All official professions are listed on the Government Website like a phone directory.  Under such a structure, doctors would seek to obtain the "official" title to increase their credibility.  Perhaps, only "official doctors" would be allowed to perform certain such as the declaration of a live birth or the confirmation an individual deceased.

 

Amendments to the Constitution

In this Constitution, it is important to be clear and explicit, otherwise politicians and bureaucrats will interpret it the wrong way.  History shows us that it has been the case countless times.  For instance, the "Commerce Clause", forcing individuals to buy health insurance, preventing sales across states, creating cartels, and so on, which is completely the opposite of what was intended.

Trial by Jury: Any living organism capable of requesting a trial by jury (whatever oral or written) has the right of a trial by jury.  If one day monkeys petition their rights for freedom and the right to own property and are capable to present themselves before a jury (or hire an agent on their behalf), then they have a right of a trial by jury.  This clause is to prevent any form of slavery by defining certain individuals as "not human", therefore having no right to justice.  This is what is happening today with immigrants without a legal status, and those individuals are abused economically, emotionally and.  This is also to prevent a corporation to lure individuals to come to Village Libre under the promise of a better life, however confiscate their passport and keep them as slaves.  It happens today with the UAE.

Animal "rights" to petition their rights,  This opens the door for animal and aliens to petition their rights and become Citizens (provided they pass the Citizenship Test).  Let it be!  At least, no human will be treated like an animal.

 or some other thing.  Even the individual without any legal status, no document of any kind, or if he entered in the territory of Liberty Village by trespassing, has the right to have a jury to defend himself, and has the right to use the courts to seek restitution for any aggression towards his property.

Citizenship. 

Civic Consensus

What is Constitutional Tyranny?

Constitutional tyranny occurs when those in power have the ability of interpreting the Constitution in a way to legitimize their tyrannical actions.  When a Constitution is written in a vague language, such as having a clause to "regulate commerce" or to "provide for the general welfare", then those in power will eventually interpret those words in a way which is completely opposite of the original intent of the Constitution.

The solution to prevent constitutional tyranny is writing a Constitution with clear and well-defined words, leaving no room for judicial discretion in interpreting the Constitution.

Scalability

This Constitution is designed to scale well from a simple village of a few hundred inhabitants, to a large city to a country.  Just replace the word "Village" by "City" and you have a Constitution for a City.  The City Council is now the new entity electing the Government Officers.

Copyright

There are no copyrights regarding this Constitution.  Anyone is free to duplicate and print any material on the Village Libre website without requesting any permission.  If a group of individuals wishes to start their own liberty village, they are free to use this Constitution as a base framework and modify the articles they wish to change.  Also, any Amendments to the Constitution cannot be copyrighted.  This Constitution is meant to be shared across the world.

Our dream is to see thousands of communities around the world sharing liberty.

“When you are young you worry about people stealing your ideas, when you are old you worry about people NOT stealing your ideas”

Glossary

Definitions of terms used in this Constitution.

Government

The term Government is the body of Government Institutions, Government Officers and Government Employees, usually excluding Quasi-Government Organizations.  For instance, if a phrase says "the Government has the duty", it means one of the Government Institution or Government Officer has the duty to perform a certain activity.  Likewise, if a phrase says "the Government is forbidden to provide welfare", then it means Government Institutions and Government Officers are forbidden to provide welfare, however Quasi-Government Organizations are free to do so.

Government Person

A Government Person is the generic term for any Government Employee or any Government Officer.  A Government Officer is a person at the head of a Government Department having a mandate for specific tasks.  A Government Employee is a person performing a governmental task under the directions of a Government Officer.  Government Officers are elected with a budget and are free to hire employees to perform their duties.

There is a distinction between a Citizen and a Government Person.  For instance, Citizens are free to discuss anything they want, however Government Persons must obey the Constitution.  For instance, a Government Person is forbidden to promote or fund activities forbidden in the Constitution, such as having an Income Tax or a system of Health Care provided by the Government.

A Citizen running for office is also considered a Government Person and subject to Treason if attempting to be elected by making promises violating this Constitution.

Government Department

The term Government Department is a synonym for the team of a Government Officer.  Each Government Officer has the duty to pay all expenses of his Department which includes the salaries of his employees.

Government Transaction

A Government Transaction is a generic term referring to a transfer of gold as income for the Government or an expenditure of the Government.  All government income must come only from Civic Societies and must be listed on the Government Website so they may be audited.  It is an act of treason for any Government Officer or employee to accept any payment from a Citizen, Resident or Visitor.  The Mayor receives income only from the Print Office which is responsible of printing documents such as Driver Licenses

Ineptocracy

A system of government where the least capable to lead are elected by the least capable of producing, and where the members of society least likely to sustain themselves or succeed, are rewarded with goods and services paid for by the confiscated wealth of a diminishing number of producers.